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Water Vapor And The Climate, Why Carbon Dioxide Is A Very Minor Player


Water Vapor And The Climate, Why Carbon Dioxide Is A Very Minor Player01-05-2022 01:00
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(4327)
https://arizonadailyindependent.com/2018/07/21/water-vapor-and-the-climate-why-carbon-dioxide-is-a-very-minor-player/

Conventional greenhouse theory holds that the sun's energy passes through a relatively transparent atmosphere (in absence of clouds and aerosols) and heats the surface of the earth. The surface radiates energy in infrared wave lengths back into the atmosphere. Some of that energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and water vapor, and some is re-radiated back toward the surface, thereby raising temperatures. Why then, does the presence of water vapor, a strong greenhouse gas, cause cooling? The answer lies in the properties of water.

First, it takes heat energy to turn liquid water into water vapor. This is the latent heat of vaporization which absorbs heat energy without changing temperature. Likewise is the latent heat of fusion. It takes heat energy to change ice to liquid water, again without changing temperature.

Second, is the great heat capacity of water and water vapor, i.e., the ability to store heat energy. Since hot air rises, the contained water vapor transports heat away from the surface by convection.

The third property is related to the second. Water vapor is relatively transparent to incoming solar radiation in the visible part of the spectrum, but is an excellent absorber of infrared radiation. This capacity warms the water vapor and heat is transported away by convection. Sweger notes, "that the IR absorption of carbon dioxide on solar irradiance is of marginal effect since the absorption by water vapor is virtually 100% without any contribution from carbon dioxide." That may be overstating it a bit, but not by much since there is usually at least 60 times more water vapor in the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide.

And, of course, more water vapor in the atmosphere produces clouds which reflect incoming sunlight back into space, so it never reaches the surface to contribute to the greenhouse effect.

We see from direct observation that water vapor tends to moderate global temperatures. As Dr. Roy Spencer notes, "The question of how much warming will result from adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is what we skeptics are skeptical of. The climate system is amazingly complex, and the IPCC position that elements within the climate system (especially clouds) will change in ways which amplify the resulting small warming tendency is highly questionable, to say the least. If the climate system instead acts to reduce the warming, then anthropogenic global warming (AGW) becomes for all practical purposes a non-issue."

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Edited on 01-05-2022 01:39
01-05-2022 01:21
SwanProfile picture★★★★★
(2175)
HarveyH55 wrote:
https://arizonadailyindependent.com/2018/07/21/water-vapor-and-the-climate-why-carbon-dioxide-is-a-very-minor-player/

Conventional greenhouse theory holds that the sun's energy passes through a relatively transparent atmosphere (in absence of clouds and aerosols) and heats the surface of the earth. The surface radiates energy in infrared wave lengths back into the atmosphere. Some of that energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and water vapor, and some is re-radiated back toward the surface, thereby raising temperatures. Why then, does the presence of water vapor, a strong greenhouse gas, cause cooling? The answer lies in the properties of water.

First, it takes heat energy to turn liquid water into water vapor. This is the latent heat of vaporization which absorbs heat energy without changing temperature. Likewise is the latent heat of fusion. It takes heat energy to change ice to liquid water, again without changing temperature.

Second, is the great heat capacity of water and water vapor, i.e., the ability to store heat energy. Since hot air rises, the contained water vapor transports heat away from the surface by convection.

The third property is related to the second. Water vapor is relatively transparent to incoming solar radiation in the visible part of the spectrum, but is an excellent absorber of infrared radiation. This capacity warms the water vapor and heat is transported away by convection. Sweger notes, "that the IR absorption of carbon dioxide on solar irradiance is of marginal effect since the absorption by water vapor is virtually 100% without any contribution from carbon dioxide." That may be overstating it a bit, but not by much since there is usually at least 60 times more water vapor in the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide.

And, of course, more water vapor in the atmosphere produces clouds which reflect incoming sunlight back into space, so it never reaches the surface to contribute to the greenhouse effect.

We see from direct observation that water vapor tends to moderate global temperatures. As Dr. Roy Spencer notes, "The question of how much warming will result from adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is what we skeptics are skeptical of. The climate system is amazingly complex, and the IPCC position that elements within the climate system (especially clouds) will change in ways which amplify the resulting small warming tendency is highly questionable, to say the least. If the climate system instead acts to reduce the warming, then anthropogenic global warming (AGW) becomes for all practical purposes a non-issue."


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[/img]


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
01-05-2022 06:08
James_
★★★★☆
(1099)
HarveyH55 wrote:
https://arizonadailyindependent.com/2018/07/21/water-vapor-and-the-climate-why-carbon-dioxide-is-a-very-minor-player/

Conventional greenhouse theory holds that the sun's energy passes through a relatively transparent atmosphere (in absence of clouds and aerosols) and heats the surface of the earth. The surface radiates energy in infrared wave lengths back into the atmosphere. Some of that energy is absorbed by greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and water vapor, and some is re-radiated back toward the surface, thereby raising temperatures. Why then, does the presence of water vapor, a strong greenhouse gas, cause cooling? The answer lies in the properties of water.

First, it takes heat energy to turn liquid water into water vapor. This is the latent heat of vaporization which absorbs heat energy without changing temperature. Likewise is the latent heat of fusion. It takes heat energy to change ice to liquid water, again without changing temperature.

Second, is the great heat capacity of water and water vapor, i.e., the ability to store heat energy. Since hot air rises, the contained water vapor transports heat away from the surface by convection.

The third property is related to the second. Water vapor is relatively transparent to incoming solar radiation in the visible part of the spectrum, but is an excellent absorber of infrared radiation. This capacity warms the water vapor and heat is transported away by convection. Sweger notes, "that the IR absorption of carbon dioxide on solar irradiance is of marginal effect since the absorption by water vapor is virtually 100% without any contribution from carbon dioxide." That may be overstating it a bit, but not by much since there is usually at least 60 times more water vapor in the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide.

And, of course, more water vapor in the atmosphere produces clouds which reflect incoming sunlight back into space, so it never reaches the surface to contribute to the greenhouse effect.

We see from direct observation that water vapor tends to moderate global temperatures. As Dr. Roy Spencer notes, "The question of how much warming will result from adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is what we skeptics are skeptical of. The climate system is amazingly complex, and the IPCC position that elements within the climate system (especially clouds) will change in ways which amplify the resulting small warming tendency is highly questionable, to say the least. If the climate system instead acts to reduce the warming, then anthropogenic global warming (AGW) becomes for all practical purposes a non-issue."



Me and my brother Harold once watched the movie Killer Clowns From Outer Space. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ETiSMS4i1as

We liked the pizza and laughed at the movie.
01-05-2022 06:57
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(12599)
HarveyH55 wrote: https://arizonadailyindependent.com/2018/07/21/water-vapor-and-the-climate-why-carbon-dioxide-is-a-very-minor-player/

Thank you for posting this Harvey.

some is re-radiated back toward the surface, thereby raising temperatures.

Right there: "...thereby raising temperatures."

Temperature cannot increase without additional thermal energy. The statement above implies greenhouse gases are creating thermal energy out of nothing and violating the 1st law of thermodynamics in the process.

Moral of the Story: Nobody gets to claim any temperature increase without specifically accounting for the additional thermal energy that results in the claimed temperature increase.


Second, is the great heat capacity of water and water vapor, i.e., the ability to store heat energy.

What exactly is the upper limit to water's capacity to absorb thermal energy?

[hint: there is no such limit]


Since hot air rises, the contained water vapor transports heat away from the surface by convection.

So? If thermal energy is transferred from A to B, their average temperature remains unchanged.

And, of course, more water vapor in the atmosphere produces clouds which reflect incoming sunlight back into space, so it never reaches the surface to contribute to the greenhouse effect.

Let me see, water is both an amazing greenhouse gas that contributes to Global Warming 60 times more than CO2 while simultaneously cooling the earth.

Fascinating.

We see from direct observation that water vapor tends to moderate global temperatures.

Aaaahhh, the Marxist "we" again, directly observing that which does not happen.

Notice how water vapor is not portrayed as simply a component of nature that either increases temperatures or decreases temperatures, but is portrayed as an intelligent, benevolent deity that actively controls temperatures on our behalf. Water vapor "moderates" temperatures, which is a totally subjective activity. Water vapor prevents temperatures from getting too hot or from getting too cold, like it is preparing our bottle of formula, with love.

As Dr. Roy Spencer notes, "The question of how much warming will result from adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is what we skeptics are skeptical of.

Show me someone who claims to be a skeptic and I'll show you someone who isn't skeptical of any Global Warming dogma.
01-05-2022 17:40
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(4327)
80% of the planet surface is water. Water is very good at moving thermal energy. We have ocean currents, we have wind. Water will move thermal energy from hot to cold. Which is pretty good, since only half the planet faces the sun at any moment. We don't get the huge shock of going from a hot day,to freezing cold, when the sunsets.
01-05-2022 19:35
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(12599)
HarveyH55 wrote:80% of the planet surface is water. Water is very good at moving thermal energy. We have ocean currents, we have wind. Water will move thermal energy from hot to cold. Which is pretty good, since only half the planet faces the sun at any moment. We don't get the huge shock of going from a hot day,to freezing cold, when the sunsets.

Solid point.

The earth itself acquires thermal energy from the sun, and loses thermal energy via thermal radiation into space, all according to Stefan-Boltzmann and blackbody science. Wamizombie claims, that the shuttling around of thermal energy as you describe somehow creates thermal energy and somehow increases temperatures, stand in denial of science.
01-05-2022 20:09
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(4327)
IBdaMann wrote:
HarveyH55 wrote:80% of the planet surface is water. Water is very good at moving thermal energy. We have ocean currents, we have wind. Water will move thermal energy from hot to cold. Which is pretty good, since only half the planet faces the sun at any moment. We don't get the huge shock of going from a hot day,to freezing cold, when the sunsets.

Solid point.

The earth itself acquires thermal energy from the sun, and loses thermal energy via thermal radiation into space, all according to Stefan-Boltzmann and blackbody science. Wamizombie claims, that the shuttling around of thermal energy as you describe somehow creates thermal energy and somehow increases temperatures, stand in denial of science.


I really don't get where liberals have such a strong faith in 'free-stuff'. Poor parenting I'm sure played a huge role.
RE: Tale of the four gang rapists.03-05-2022 02:50
Im a BM
★★☆☆☆
(199)
Tale of the four gang rapists.

The four vicious sadists had established the perfect ambush technique.

Wait for the naive sorority girl who thought she had been invited to a tree hugger party.

When she gets there, she discovers that SHE is the party.

Competition to be the first. Nobody prefers sloppy seconds, but they'll take what they can get.

One evening, 50 sorority girls walked in through the unlocked door to attend the tree hugger party.

Well, nobody has to settle for sloppy seconds any more.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HarveyH55 wrote:
IBdaMann wrote:
HarveyH55 wrote:80% of the planet surface is water. Water is very good at moving thermal energy. We have ocean currents, we have wind. Water will move thermal energy from hot to cold. Which is pretty good, since only half the planet faces the sun at any moment. We don't get the huge shock of going from a hot day,to freezing cold, when the sunsets.

Solid point.

The earth itself acquires thermal energy from the sun, and loses thermal energy via thermal radiation into space, all according to Stefan-Boltzmann and blackbody science. Wamizombie claims, that the shuttling around of thermal energy as you describe somehow creates thermal energy and somehow increases temperatures, stand in denial of science.


I really don't get where liberals have such a strong faith in 'free-stuff'. Poor parenting I'm sure played a huge role.
03-05-2022 16:50
gfm7175Profile picture★★★★★
(3184)
IBdaMann wrote:As Dr. Roy Spencer notes, "The question of how much warming will result from adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is what we skeptics are skeptical of.

Show me someone who claims to be a skeptic and I'll show you someone who isn't skeptical of any Global Warming dogma.[/quote]
I love it whenever Dr. Roy Spencer gets quoted by someone, as if he is some sort of authority or "expert" on the matter. He likes to make schitt up as much as the rest of 'em...
03-05-2022 16:54
gfm7175Profile picture★★★★★
(3184)
Im a BM wrote:
Well, nobody has to settle for sloppy seconds any more.

... except for you, being the "sloppy seconds" sock account of squeal over, as if two accounts will suddenly convert your gibberbabble into science.




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