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Scientists say Florida Keys coral reefs are already bleaching as water temperatures hit record highs


Scientists say Florida Keys coral reefs are already bleaching as water temperatures hit record highs22-07-2023 06:48
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(5197)
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Scientists say Florida Keys coral reefs are already bleaching as water temperatures hit record highs
By TERRY SPENCER and PATRICK WHITTLE
Associated Press
FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. (AP) — Some Florida Keys coral reefs are losing their color weeks earlier than normal this summer because of record-high water temperatures, meaning they are under stress and their health is potentially endangered, federal scientists said.

The corals should be vibrant and colorful this time of year, but are swiftly going white, said Katey Lesneski, research and monitoring coordinator for Mission: Iconic Reefs, which the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration launched to protect Florida coral reefs.

"The corals are pale, it looks like the color's draining out," said Lesneski, who has spent several days on the reefs over the last two weeks. "And some individuals are stark white. And we still have more to come."

Scientists with NOAA this week raised their coral bleaching warning system to Alert Level 2 for the Keys, their highest heat stress level out of five. That level is reached when the average water surface temperature is about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) above the normal maximum for eight straight weeks.

Surface temperatures around the Keys have been averaging about 91 degrees (33 Celsius), well above the normal mid-July average of 85 degrees (29.5 Celsius), said Jacqueline De La Cour, operations manager for NOAA's Coral Reef Watch program. Previous Alert Level 2s were reached in August, she said.

Coral reefs are made up of tiny organisms that link together. The reefs get their color from the algae that live inside them and are the corals' food. When temperatures get too high, the coral expels the algae, making the reefs appear white or bleached. That doesn't mean they are dead, but the corals can starve and are more susceptible to disease.

Andrew Bruckner, research coordinator at the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, said some coral reefs began showing the first signs of bleaching two weeks ago. Then in the last few days, some reefs lost all their color. That had never been recorded before Aug. 1. The peak for bleaching typically happens in late August or September.

"We are at least a month ahead of time, if not two months," Bruckner said. "We're not yet at the point where we are seeing any mortality ... from bleaching. It is still a minor number that are completely white, certain species, but it is much sooner than we expected."

Still, forecasting what will happen the rest of the summer is hard, De La Cour and Bruckner said. While water temperatures could continue to spike — which could be devastating — a tropical storm or hurricane could churn the water and cool it down. Dusty air from the Sahara Desert moving across the Atlantic and settling over Florida could dampen the sun's rays, lowering temperatures.

Because of climate change and other factors, the Keys waters have lost 80% to 90% of their coral over the last 50 years, Bruckner said. That affects not only marine life that depends on the reefs for survival, but also people — coral reefs are a natural buffer against storm surge from hurricanes and other storms. There is also an economic impact because tourism from fishing, scuba diving and snorkeling is heavily dependent on coral reefs.

"People get in the water, let's fish, let's dive — that's why protecting Florida's coral reef is so critical," De La Cour said.

Both scientists said it is not "all doom and gloom." A 20-year, large-scale effort is underway to rebuild Florida's coral back to about 90% of where it was 50 years ago. Bruckner said scientists are breeding corals that can better withstand the heat and are using simple things like shade covers and underwater fans to cool the water to help them survive.

"We are looking for answers and we are trying to do something, rather than just looking away," Bruckner said.

Breeding corals can encourage heat resistance in future generations of the animals, said Jason Spadaro, coral reef restoration program manager for Mote Marine Laboratory & Aquarium in Sarasota, Florida. That could be vital to saving them, he said.

Spadaro and others who have visited the corals said they have noticed the coral bleaching is worse in the lower Keys than in the more northern parts of the area. The Keys have experienced bad bleaching years in the past, but this year it is "really aggressive and it's really persistent," he said.

"It's going to be a rough year for the reef. It hammers home the need to continue this important work," he said.

The early bleaching is happening during a year when water temperatures are spiking earlier than normal, said Ross Cunning, a research biologist at Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. The Keys are experiencing water temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 degrees Celsius), which would normally not occur until August or September, he said.

The hot water could lead to a "disastrous bleaching event" if it does not wane, Cunning said.

"We're seeing temperatures now that are even higher than what we normally see at peak, which is what makes this particularly scary," Cunning said.

De La Cour said she has no doubt that the warming waters are caused by human-made global warming and that needs to be fixed for coral to survive.

"If we do not reduce the greenhouse gas emissions we are emitting and don't reduce the greenhouse gases that are already in the atmosphere, we are creating a world where coral reefs cannot exist, no matter what we do," she said.


For fearmongering, this article was still pretty interesting... Usually, they imply that bleached coral, is dead coral, or dying. Here though, they admit that bleaching occurs pretty much every year, which means recovery as well. Finally, the admit that it's the algae that provides the color, not the coral. Still waiting for mention that plants go through dormant periods... The algae is the primary food of corals, not the only food. We don't live in an ideal world, where every day is perfect in every way. These scientists should have scheduled their vacation in the Springtime...
22-07-2023 23:56
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(22228)
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??
23-07-2023 01:39
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(5197)
Into the Night wrote:
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??


Not that I'm aware of... They have been cracking down on cruise ships purging their sewage tanks, before docking. The disposal fee at port, can't be that expensive... I really don't see the problem with purging the tank further out to sea. But, just off the coast, from popular beaches is just plain wrong. No one want's to see brown-waves rolling in to shore.
24-07-2023 07:53
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14718)
Into the Night wrote:Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??

Read it more closely ... the reef is pouring the bleach.
24-07-2023 21:42
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(22228)
HarveyH55 wrote:
Into the Night wrote:
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??


Not that I'm aware of... They have been cracking down on cruise ships purging their sewage tanks, before docking. The disposal fee at port, can't be that expensive... I really don't see the problem with purging the tank further out to sea. But, just off the coast, from popular beaches is just plain wrong. No one want's to see brown-waves rolling in to shore.


Yes, the cruise ships should not dump close to shore. Best done at sea. It turns into fish food there and doesn't contaminate any beaches. The big cruise ships are generally pretty good about this. The biggest offenders are the day cruise operators.

None of it hurts the coral.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
Edited on 24-07-2023 21:49
RE: The hilarious destruction of coral reefs26-07-2023 22:07
Im a BM
★★★☆☆
(955)
Into the Night wrote:
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??



A scientifically illiterate troll might actually believe that coral bleaching is a hoax because nobody is pouring bleach into the ocean.

A new record for the highest sea surface water temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world is not good news for the coral reefs of Florida.

Hilarious material for mockery.

Besides, it is not physically possible to measure water temperature, right?
27-07-2023 01:59
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(22228)
Im a BM wrote:
Into the Night wrote:
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??

A scientifically illiterate troll might actually believe that coral bleaching is a hoax because nobody is pouring bleach into the ocean.

Then coral is not being bleached.
Im a BM wrote:
A new record for the highest sea surface water temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world is not good news for the coral reefs of Florida.

It is not possible to measure the temperature of the ocean.
Im a BM wrote:
Hilarious material for mockery.

Besides, it is not physically possible to measure water temperature, right?

It is, but it's not possible to measure the temperature of the ocean.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
27-07-2023 08:39
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(5197)
Im a BM wrote:
Into the Night wrote:
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??



A scientifically illiterate troll might actually believe that coral bleaching is a hoax because nobody is pouring bleach into the ocean.

A new record for the highest sea surface water temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world is not good news for the coral reefs of Florida.

Hilarious material for mockery.

Besides, it is not physically possible to measure water temperature, right?


Water temperature isn't the same as the entire sea... A thermometer only measures what is in contact with it. A very small sample, doesn't represent the entire ocean.

Water temperature may be a contributing factor, but isn't likely to be the primary issue with the coral. It's only one relevant to the agenda. We've had coral problems before, in cooler water... For the 'bleaching', it's the algae that lives there that provides the colors, not the coral. Algae is 'bad', since algae blooms cause Red Tide, fish kills... Use to be almost an annual problem, until 'scientist' fixed the problem. Their 'fix' might be the problem with the coral-algae. The reduction in algae blooms correlates with coral bleaching. Of course there will never be a consensus...
28-07-2023 00:20
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(22228)
HarveyH55 wrote:
Im a BM wrote:
Into the Night wrote:
Is someone pouring bleach into the ocean again??



A scientifically illiterate troll might actually believe that coral bleaching is a hoax because nobody is pouring bleach into the ocean.

A new record for the highest sea surface water temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world is not good news for the coral reefs of Florida.

Hilarious material for mockery.

Besides, it is not physically possible to measure water temperature, right?


Water temperature isn't the same as the entire sea... A thermometer only measures what is in contact with it. A very small sample, doesn't represent the entire ocean.

Water temperature may be a contributing factor, but isn't likely to be the primary issue with the coral. It's only one relevant to the agenda. We've had coral problems before, in cooler water... For the 'bleaching', it's the algae that lives there that provides the colors, not the coral. Algae is 'bad', since algae blooms cause Red Tide, fish kills... Use to be almost an annual problem, until 'scientist' fixed the problem. Their 'fix' might be the problem with the coral-algae. The reduction in algae blooms correlates with coral bleaching. Of course there will never be a consensus...

Exactly.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
RE: latest videos are heartbreaking28-07-2023 21:15
Im a BM
★★★☆☆
(955)
HarveyH55 wrote:
link

Scientists say Florida Keys coral reefs are already bleaching as water temperatures hit record highs
By TERRY SPENCER and PATRICK WHITTLE
Associated Press
FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla. (AP) — Some Florida Keys coral reefs are losing their color weeks earlier than normal this summer because of record-high water temperatures, meaning they are under stress and their health is potentially endangered, federal scientists said.

The corals should be vibrant and colorful this time of year, but are swiftly going white, said Katey Lesneski, research and monitoring coordinator for Mission: Iconic Reefs, which the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration launched to protect Florida coral reefs.

"The corals are pale, it looks like the color's draining out," said Lesneski, who has spent several days on the reefs over the last two weeks. "And some individuals are stark white. And we still have more to come."

Scientists with NOAA this week raised their coral bleaching warning system to Alert Level 2 for the Keys, their highest heat stress level out of five. That level is reached when the average water surface temperature is about 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit (1 degree Celsius) above the normal maximum for eight straight weeks.

Surface temperatures around the Keys have been averaging about 91 degrees (33 Celsius), well above the normal mid-July average of 85 degrees (29.5 Celsius), said Jacqueline De La Cour, operations manager for NOAA's Coral Reef Watch program. Previous Alert Level 2s were reached in August, she said.

Coral reefs are made up of tiny organisms that link together. The reefs get their color from the algae that live inside them and are the corals' food. When temperatures get too high, the coral expels the algae, making the reefs appear white or bleached. That doesn't mean they are dead, but the corals can starve and are more susceptible to disease.

Andrew Bruckner, research coordinator at the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, said some coral reefs began showing the first signs of bleaching two weeks ago. Then in the last few days, some reefs lost all their color. That had never been recorded before Aug. 1. The peak for bleaching typically happens in late August or September.

"We are at least a month ahead of time, if not two months," Bruckner said. "We're not yet at the point where we are seeing any mortality ... from bleaching. It is still a minor number that are completely white, certain species, but it is much sooner than we expected."

Still, forecasting what will happen the rest of the summer is hard, De La Cour and Bruckner said. While water temperatures could continue to spike — which could be devastating — a tropical storm or hurricane could churn the water and cool it down. Dusty air from the Sahara Desert moving across the Atlantic and settling over Florida could dampen the sun's rays, lowering temperatures.

Because of climate change and other factors, the Keys waters have lost 80% to 90% of their coral over the last 50 years, Bruckner said. That affects not only marine life that depends on the reefs for survival, but also people — coral reefs are a natural buffer against storm surge from hurricanes and other storms. There is also an economic impact because tourism from fishing, scuba diving and snorkeling is heavily dependent on coral reefs.

"People get in the water, let's fish, let's dive — that's why protecting Florida's coral reef is so critical," De La Cour said.

Both scientists said it is not "all doom and gloom." A 20-year, large-scale effort is underway to rebuild Florida's coral back to about 90% of where it was 50 years ago. Bruckner said scientists are breeding corals that can better withstand the heat and are using simple things like shade covers and underwater fans to cool the water to help them survive.

"We are looking for answers and we are trying to do something, rather than just looking away," Bruckner said.

Breeding corals can encourage heat resistance in future generations of the animals, said Jason Spadaro, coral reef restoration program manager for Mote Marine Laboratory & Aquarium in Sarasota, Florida. That could be vital to saving them, he said.

Spadaro and others who have visited the corals said they have noticed the coral bleaching is worse in the lower Keys than in the more northern parts of the area. The Keys have experienced bad bleaching years in the past, but this year it is "really aggressive and it's really persistent," he said.

"It's going to be a rough year for the reef. It hammers home the need to continue this important work," he said.

The early bleaching is happening during a year when water temperatures are spiking earlier than normal, said Ross Cunning, a research biologist at Shedd Aquarium in Chicago. The Keys are experiencing water temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32 degrees Celsius), which would normally not occur until August or September, he said.

The hot water could lead to a "disastrous bleaching event" if it does not wane, Cunning said.

"We're seeing temperatures now that are even higher than what we normally see at peak, which is what makes this particularly scary," Cunning said.

De La Cour said she has no doubt that the warming waters are caused by human-made global warming and that needs to be fixed for coral to survive.

"If we do not reduce the greenhouse gas emissions we are emitting and don't reduce the greenhouse gases that are already in the atmosphere, we are creating a world where coral reefs cannot exist, no matter what we do," she said.


For fearmongering, this article was still pretty interesting... Usually, they imply that bleached coral, is dead coral, or dying. Here though, they admit that bleaching occurs pretty much every year, which means recovery as well. Finally, the admit that it's the algae that provides the color, not the coral. Still waiting for mention that plants go through dormant periods... The algae is the primary food of corals, not the only food. We don't live in an ideal world, where every day is perfect in every way. These scientists should have scheduled their vacation in the Springtime...



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Call it "fearmongering".

I just saw some video recorded yesterday of heavily bleached coral reef off the coast of south Florida.

So far, the worst effects are limited to the shallowest areas of reef closest to the shore. That is where the surface water gets hottest.

These are the same places humans are most likely to go when they visit coral reefs.

I was ridiculed for telling the story of my favorite patch of coral reef in the Dominican Republic getting bleached in the 1990s.

The videos I just saw reminded me very much of what I saw 25 years ago.

Call it "fearmongering".

I hope that others will call it what it is.

Evidence of unprecedented global change occurring before our eyes in real time.
28-07-2023 21:25
GasGuzzler
★★★★★
(3011)
Im a BM wrote:
Evidence of unprecedented global change occurring before our eyes in real time.

Wait.....how is can something be unprecedented when it happened 25 years ago?

On a side note, it's been awfully dry here in Iowa and I'm certain the drought is due to climate change. When do we get the flood part of climate change?


Radiation will not penetrate a perfect insulator, thus as I said space is not a perfect insulator.- Swan
RE: When "unprecedented" becomes the "new normal"28-07-2023 21:46
Im a BM
★★★☆☆
(955)
GasGuzzler wrote:
Im a BM wrote:
Evidence of unprecedented global change occurring before our eyes in real time.

Wait.....how is can something be unprecedented when it happened 25 years ago?

On a side note, it's been awfully dry here in Iowa and I'm certain the drought is due to climate change. When do we get the flood part of climate change?



Yes, these things had already started happening more than 25 years ago.

But not by much before that. The first reports of this kind of coral bleaching that I ever saw were about 1992.

How quickly we adjust from "unprecedented" to the "new normal".

But insurance companies are having trouble keeping up.

They weren't ready for the new normal of extreme weather events.

Their rates were based on a historic record that no longer applies.

A lot of insurance companies have simply stopped offering coverage, at least for certain events in certain areas.

When "fearmongering" affects the bottom line, political bias is forgotten.

There is still a tiny minority who refuse to believe.

They may have disproportionate representation in Internet rabbit holes.

Fortunately, out in the real world more people than ever recognize the reality.

Unfortunately, time is not on our side.

And, unfortunately, people are all too good at adapting their consciousness to accept a new normal as status quo.

So, let's keep tabs on what happens to those coral reefs in Florida.

Some will have limited recovery. Some may not recover for another century.

And when they try to recover, their growth rate will be much slower.

Not only has the sea gotten too warm, the bioavailability of carbonate ion for shell formation has been diminished by ocean "acidification".
29-07-2023 09:59
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14718)
Im a BM wrote:
GasGuzzler wrote:
Im a BM wrote:Evidence of unprecedented global change occurring before our eyes in real time.
Wait.....how is can something be unprecedented when it happened 25 years ago?
Yes, these things had already started happening more than 25 years ago.

You didn't answer GasGuzzler's valid and straightforward question, the one that makes a complete mockery of your argument. Why is that? That's neither pedogogical nor scientific of you to simply flee like a startled deer. It's cowardly and dishonest.

Carry on.

Im a BM wrote: How quickly we adjust from "unprecedented" to the "new normal".

Be careful in your use of the Marxist "we," i.e. using "we" instead of "I". This whole Climate Change religion that you bought in its entirety without asking any questions or calling booooolsch't when you should have, has caused you to fall into a cult-like obedience. You believe, and worship, exactly as you are ordered by your clergy.

You should have learned science and critical reasoning skills when you had the opportunity.

Im a BM wrote: But insurance companies are having trouble keeping up.

Insurance companies are having no problem keeping up.

Im a BM wrote:They weren't ready for the new normal of extreme weather events.

It's their business to be ready for the unexpected disasters.

Im a BM wrote: Their rates were based on a historic record that no longer applies.

The historic record is still used.

Im a BM wrote: A lot of insurance companies have simply stopped offering coverage, at least for certain events in certain areas.

Those kinds of changes occur after every natural disaster as State and Federal legislatures, in their attempts to appear responsive to the public, pass relevant legislation that affects the insurance companies. Hence, insurance companies are continually "adjusting" in every which way imaginable, often ceasing to provide coverage for something.

Im a BM wrote:There is still a tiny minority who refuse to believe.

There are only a tiny minority who actually believe. They are the stupid ones and are easily recognizable by the stupid things they say, by the easy questions they EVADE, by the unambiguous definitions they will not provide and by the constant pivoting when backing themselves into yet another corner. They may have disproportionate representation in Internet rabbit holes, but fortunately, out in the real world, Global Warming and Climate Change never make the top twenty list of "Greatest Concerns."

Im a BM wrote:Unfortunately, time is not on our side.

Time is on our side, so just relax with a cold beverage and enjoy life, although for you, it might already be too late.

Im a BM wrote: And, unfortunately, people are all too good at adapting their consciousness to accept a new normal as status quo.

There is no "new normal" because the old normal never changed.

Im a BM wrote: So, let's keep tabs on what happens to those coral reefs in Florida.

I think you mean to say "Let's continue to enjoy those coral reefs, just as we have since time immemorial." Those coral reefs aren't going anywhere so just relax with a cold beverage and enjoy life ... etc, etc, etc,

Im a BM wrote: Some will have limited recovery. Some may not recover for another century.

The word "recovery" only applies when there has been injury. There has been no injury.

Im a BM wrote: And when they try to recover, their growth rate will be much slower.

Coral reefs will continue to grow at exactly the same rate they always have.

Im a BM wrote: Not only has the sea gotten too warm,

Aaaah, we return once again to one of the many questions you EVADE because it reveals your argument to be nothing more than your own WACKY delusion: "Why should any rational adult believe that the sea has even changed temperature to any discernible extent?" Here's another: "Why should any rational adult believe that you somehow know that sea temperature has risen, considering the non-discernible extent being claimed?" (i.e. "Why should anyone believe that you are somehow omniscient?") Here's another: "Why can you not point to a single coral reef anywhere in the world that has somehow suffered any actual injury whatsoever?"

You're nothing but a firebrand preacher for a WACKY religion. It's time for you to hang it up.

Im a BM wrote: the bioavailability

This is not a word. It's another ... [drumroll please] ... undefined buzzword.

By the way, carbonate ions are not alive. They don't have any "bio" anything.

Im a BM wrote: ... of carbonate ion for shell formation has been diminished by ocean "acidification".

Why should any rational adult believe this? Why should any rational adult believe anything you have to say on the matter?

29-07-2023 18:26
HarveyH55Profile picture★★★★★
(5197)
The coral that tourist break off a souvenir chunk, is a colony of animals, not a single. All living things have a limited lifespan. These little animals don't drag out the dead, and move in. They attach, and add onto the existing structure started by hundreds/thousands of previous residents.

Warmer water is just one of many possibilities. Might not even be directly involved. Coral 'bleaching' is the algae that gives color, doesn't mean the coral animal is dying. The algae provides food, but coral can eat most anything floating by. The algae is a convenient source of food, not the exclusive source. The coral is anchored, and can't change locations.
29-07-2023 20:14
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(22228)
Im a BM wrote:
GasGuzzler wrote:
Im a BM wrote:
Evidence of unprecedented global change occurring before our eyes in real time.

Wait.....how is can something be unprecedented when it happened 25 years ago?

On a side note, it's been awfully dry here in Iowa and I'm certain the drought is due to climate change. When do we get the flood part of climate change?



Yes, these things had already started happening more than 25 years ago.

But not by much before that. The first reports of this kind of coral bleaching that I ever saw were about 1992.

How quickly we adjust from "unprecedented" to the "new normal".

There is no 'new normal'. Buzzword fallacy.
Im a BM wrote:
But insurance companies are having trouble keeping up.

With what?
Im a BM wrote:
They weren't ready for the new normal of extreme weather events.

There is no 'new normal'. Define 'extreme weather event'.
Im a BM wrote:
Their rates were based on a historic record that no longer applies.

Their rates haven't changed (other than being adjusted for inflation).
Im a BM wrote:
A lot of insurance companies have simply stopped offering coverage, at least for certain events in certain areas.

...such as?
Im a BM wrote:
When "fearmongering" affects the bottom line, political bias is forgotten.

There is still a tiny minority who refuse to believe.

Argument from randU fallacy. Making up numbers doesn't work. I utterly reject the Church of Global Warming.
Im a BM wrote:
They may have disproportionate representation in Internet rabbit holes.

Fortunately, out in the real world more people than ever recognize the reality.

Buzzword fallacies. Learn what 'real' means.
Im a BM wrote:
Unfortunately, time is not on our side.

Time has no 'side'.
Im a BM wrote:
And, unfortunately, people are all too good at adapting their consciousness to accept a new normal as status quo.

There is no 'new normal'.
Im a BM wrote:
So, let's keep tabs on what happens to those coral reefs in Florida.

The same thing as last time. There is a die-off, and they recover in a few months.
Im a BM wrote:
Some will have limited recovery. Some may not recover for another century.

They recover in a few months.
Im a BM wrote:
And when they try to recover, their growth rate will be much slower.

Nope. Corals still grows at the same rate as always. They will completely recover in a few months.
Im a BM wrote:
Not only has the sea gotten too warm,

It is not possible to measure the temperature of the ocean.
Im a BM wrote:
the bioavailability of carbonate ion for shell formation has been diminished by ocean "acidification".

It is not possible to acidify an alkaliine.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan




Join the debate Scientists say Florida Keys coral reefs are already bleaching as water temperatures hit record highs:

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