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Geoengineering to Neutralize Ocean Acidification



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09-05-2024 03:40
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
3 days ago a new paper came out regarding remediation of anthropogenic chlorophenols.


Shivani Yadav et al. 2023. A comprehensive review of chlorophenols: Fate, toxicology, and its treatment. Journal of Environmental Management. Volume 342 118254


It cites my polyphenol research.

It is an example of applied biogeochemistry to address a practical problem.

Chlorophenols are part of a broader class of halogenated organic carbon compounds.

Halogens include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

In organic form, the halogens are covalently bonded to carbon atoms.

Under strong chemical reducing conditions, reductive dehalogenation can be carried out by bacteria or by abiotic reactions.

The halogen, chlorine in the case of chlorophenols, is chemically reduced to chloride ion. The remaining part of the organic compound is much easier to degrade, once the halogen is removed.

Polyphenols been used in many ways to facilitate remediation of harmful contaminants in the environment.

Earlier this year, a paper came out about reducing hexavalent chromium using polyphenols as a way of detoxifying Cr(VI) contaminated soil.

As reducing agents for reductive dehalogenation, polyphenols may turn out to be more effective than I predicted.

Sooner or later, someone who is genuinely interested in environmental chemistry will join or rejoin the discussion.

Hopefully, it will be clear that there is an active member who doesn't simply make up scientific claims, but is actually a highly trained and accomplished scientist in the real world.
09-05-2024 03:43
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]Im a BM wrote:
21624 posts.

Are they ALL as good as this one?

Nobody ever seems to respond to them.

So let me be one of the very few who actually reads one of your posts and responds to it.

"Climate cannot change"

Tell that to the climate. And try to convince people not to believe their own lying eyes as they see extreme weather events become more and more frequent.

"Carbon is not carbon dioxide"

Perhaps you should read more. "Carbon footprint" is not a reference to carbon as an element. "Carbon neutral" is not either. Indeed, it is quite common to reference carbon dioxide as simply "carbon".

"Fossils aren't used as fuel. Fossils don't burn"

Is it possible that you really don't know what the term "fossil fuel" means?

"An acid is not an alkaline. Ocean water is not acidic."

Actually, NOTHING is "an alkaline". Alkaline is not a noun. I don't see what this is a response to. Is somebody claiming that ocean water is acidic?

Too many stupid claims to respond to so I'll just select a few more.

"Alkalinity is not a substance." Repeated multiple times.

No, it is not. However, aqueous solutions are substances that almost always have some alkalinity.

"Oxidation is not reduction." Said repeatedly.

A truly brilliant insight... to counter which claim? Was something said that could be interpreted to imply that oxidation IS reduction?

"Carbon is not organic." Repeatedly said.

Most of the world's carbon is, in fact, inorganic.

A chemistry textbook, if you knew how to read one, would explain to you that carbon in chemically oxidized form (carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, carbonate ion) is defined as "inorganic carbon".

On the other hand, while it is less than half the total carbon in the world, there is a whole lot of organic carbon out there.

An organic chemistry textbook, if you knew how to read one, would explain to you that carbon in chemically reduced form is defined as "organic carbon"

Are you sure that your company doesn't sell "organic carbon" analyzers?

"No such 'parameter' or quantity called 'alkalinity'."

Perhaps you should learn to read. In the US, it is reported as milligrams per liter calcium carbonate equivalents. I have authored many water quality reports where we paid a lab to measure this non existent parameter. We had to get it speciated as well. So we had four numbers to work with.
Total alkalinity = acid neutralizing capacity from all contributing oxyanions.
Hydroxide alkalinity = that tiny fraction of total alkalinity arising from hydroxide ions
Bicarbonate alkalinity = usually the lion's share of total alkalinity, it is the acid neutralizing capacity arising from bicarbonate ions.
HCO3- + H+ = H2CO3
Carbonate alkalinity = that part of total acid neutralizing capacity arising from carbonate ions.
CO3(2-) + H+ = HCO3- (one proton neutralized) and then
HCO3- + H+ = H2CO3 (a second proton neutralized)

It has been long known that other oxyanions such as phosphate, silicate, borate, and many other oxyanions contribute to acid neutralizing capacity. But they are so much less than 1% of the total that they are ignored.

On the other hand, water chemists now deeply regret that they didn't take organic alkalinity seriously enough.

Organic oxyanions, such as citrate, turn out to be a significant contributor to total alkalinity in many waters.

"Alkalinity is not a substance. It has no weight."

Actually, the oxyanions that contribute alkalinity ALL have some weight.

"An acid is not an alkaline."

The same meaningless sentence as before. NOTHING is "an alkaline"

"Alkalinity is not a substance or a valid word"

I guess you will have to rewrite the chemistry textbooks AND the dictionary, because they are under the impression that is IS a valid word.

I'm sure that there will be a very lengthy response to this, but this is the last time I will bother responding to or even reading another parrot poop post.
09-05-2024 03:46
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.
09-05-2024 03:47
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
One geoengineering approach to enable wetlands to generate and discharge alkalinity to the ocean is simply to better manage them.

Rising sea level and drainage for agriculture has greatly decreased the output of alkalinity from coastal wetlands.

As sea level rises, the distance between low tide and ground surface elevation is reduced. There is now less hydraulic gradient during the drainage phase to drive sulfate into low oxygen, organic carbon rich sediments. Tidal pumping is no longer as effective as it used to be to extract alkalinity from coastal wetlands. Once the rising sea level completely submerges the coastal wetland, there is no longer any hydraulic gradient or tidal pumping at all to allow sulfate to enter the low oxygen, carbon rich sediment.

When wetlands are drained for agriculture the hydraulic gradient completely shifts. Water is continuously drained from the topsoil into deep drainage ditches, then pumped uphill into adjacent surface water. The elevation of the recharge water is higher than the water table in the field below the aerobic topsoil. There is upward pressure from recharge water pushing groundwater up toward the drained topsoil, to then be intercepted, drained off, and pumped up to the river.

When wetland soils are drained, buried pyrite is exposed to oxygen. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria then generate sulfuric acid. These "acid sulfate soils" develop very low pH. They also export a lot of acidity, salinity, and dissolved organic matter to surface waters. Wetlands that previously generated alkalinity for the sea as groundwater discharge now export sulfuric-acid-enriched drainage to surface water.
09-05-2024 03:49
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
One geoengineering approach to enable wetlands to generate and discharge alkalinity to the ocean is simply to better manage them.

Rising sea level and drainage for agriculture has greatly decreased the output of alkalinity from coastal wetlands.

As sea level rises, the distance between low tide and ground surface elevation is reduced. There is now less hydraulic gradient during the drainage phase to drive sulfate into low oxygen, organic carbon rich sediments. Tidal pumping is no longer as effective as it used to be to extract alkalinity from coastal wetlands. Once the rising sea level completely submerges the coastal wetland, there is no longer any hydraulic gradient or tidal pumping at all to allow sulfate to enter the low oxygen, carbon rich sediment.

When wetlands are drained for agriculture the hydraulic gradient completely shifts. Water is continuously drained from the topsoil into deep drainage ditches, then pumped uphill into adjacent surface water. The elevation of the recharge water is higher than the water table in the field below the aerobic topsoil. There is upward pressure from recharge water pushing groundwater up toward the drained topsoil, to then be intercepted, drained off, and pumped up to the river.

When wetland soils are drained, buried pyrite is exposed to oxygen. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria then generate sulfuric acid. These "acid sulfate soils" develop very low pH. They also export a lot of acidity, salinity, and dissolved organic matter to surface waters. Wetlands that previously generated alkalinity for the sea as groundwater discharge now export sulfuric-acid-enriched drainage to surface water.
09-05-2024 03:50
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
One geoengineering approach to use coastal wetlands to generate alkalinity for the sea would also sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Coastal deserts could be farmed for alkalinity by pumping sea water into them.

Constructed wetlands have been employed for more than 50 years to neutralize acid mine drainage. Constructed saltwater wetlands could use the same biogeochemical mechanisms to neutralize ocean acidification.

It could be as simple as a low earthen dam across a dry river outlet. Wind-driven or sea-wave powered pumps could give sea water the slight lift uphill. As the water drains back to the sea, it carries the alkalinity acquired from sulfate reduction in the low oxygen sediment.

Continuous pumping of sea water in would balance with continuous drainage and evaporation to establish a steady state of hypersalinity in the constructed, upland saltwater wetland. A high enough rate of continuous sea water input could establish a steady state of only slightly elevated salinity, tolerable for aquaculture.

The resources are already available on site at little or no cost. Unproductive land could be transformed into a sink to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well as a source of new alkalinity for the sea.
09-05-2024 03:50
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
Geoengineering to acquire alkalinity for the sea from carbon stored in wetlands can be done offshore.

The waterlogged, low oxygen soil conditions of wetlands prevent aerobic oxidation of organic matter by micro organisms. Dead organic matter in the wetland soil has centuries long residence time. Centuries of peat accumulation and carbon rich sediment can pile up to great depth.

Rising sea level has submerged large areas of coastal wetlands. These submerged lands no longer support wetland photosynthesis to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. They no longer pile up new organic matter. They no longer discharge alkalinity to the sea from groundwater flows.

However, these areas are still an enormous reservoir of organic carbon stored in shallow sediments just below the surface of the sea. These deposits of pre-fossil fuel (i.e. wetland soil carbon not yet transformed by the earth into coal) contain many, many gigatons of stored organic carbon.

Offshore drilling of these pre-fossil fuel deposits could enable their exploitation as a nearly limitless source of alkalinity for the sea. Sea water could be pumped into the underlying sediments under pressure. This will drive sulfate in to the low oxygen, carbon rich sediment. Sulfate reduction will generate alkalinity which would be driven out into the sea as submarine groundwater discharge to marine ecosystems. Sufficient alkalinity for the sea could be generated long before the pre-fossil fuel runs out.
09-05-2024 03:53
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
sealover wrote: Inorganic Carbon versus Organic Carbon

What branch of science uses these terms?

Organic chemistry defines organic molecules as carbon-based molecules, or primarily-carbon-containing molecules.

sealover wrote: ORGANIC CARBON is in chemically reduced state.

You're not using the correct terms. There is no such thing as "organic carbon." The correct term for an organic molecule that achieves a reduced state is "reductant." Otherwise, organic molecules are organic molecules and carbon is just carbon.

This doesn't change somehow for non-organic molecules. Reduced substances are similarly "reductants."

The context is chemical reactions.

sealover wrote: INORGANIC CARBON is in a chemically oxidized state.

There are many non-organic molecules that are not chemically oxidized, with CO2 being a notable example.

sealover wrote: Inorganic carbon is a very weak oxidant.

Non-organic molecules that are not chemically oxidized are not oxidants (except in very rare, very specific chemical reactions).

I dug up ten examples (not exhaustive lists) in each of nine categories (not an exhaustive list) of non-organic molecules that are not chemically oxidized:

Carbonates:

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3)
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3)
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3)
Zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)
Iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3)
Barium carbonate (BaCO3)
Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)
Strontium carbonate (SrCO3)

2. Bicarbonates:

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3)
Ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3)
Magnesium bicarbonate (Mg(HCO3)2)
Calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2)
Manganese(II) bicarbonate (Mn(HCO3)2)
Zinc bicarbonate (Zn(HCO3)2)
Copper(II) bicarbonate (Cu(HCO3)2)
Iron(II) bicarbonate (Fe(HCO3)2)
Cobalt(II) bicarbonate (Co(HCO3)2)

3. Carbon Oxides:

Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon suboxide (C3O2)
Dicarbon monoxide (C2O)
Ethylene dione (C2O2)
Cyclopentanepentone (C5O5)
Cyclohexanehexone (C6O6)
1,2,3-Butanetrione (C4O3)
Propanedial (C3O2)
Ethanedial (C2O2)

4. Cyanides:

Sodium cyanide (NaCN)
Potassium cyanide (KCN)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
Calcium cyanide (Ca(CN)2)
Copper(II) cyanide (Cu(CN)2)
Silver cyanide (AgCN)
Zinc cyanide (Zn(CN)2)
Cadmium cyanide (Cd(CN)2)
Mercury(II) cyanide (Hg(CN)2)
Gold(I) cyanide (AuCN)

5. Carbides:

Calcium carbide (CaC2)
Silicon carbide (SiC)
Tungsten carbide (WC)
Boron carbide (B4C)
Aluminum carbide (Al4C3)
Iron carbide (Fe3C)
Magnesium carbide (Mg2C3)
Beryllium carbide (Be2C)
Titanium carbide (TiC)
Zirconium carbide (ZrC)

6. Carbon Halides:

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4)
Carbon tetraiodide (CI4)
Carbon tetrafluoride (CF4)
Chloroform (CHCl3)
Bromoform (CHBr3)
Iodoform (CHI3)
Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)
Dibromomethane (CH2Br2)
Diiodomethane (CH2I2)

7. Thiocyanates:

Potassium thiocyanate (KSCN)
Sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN)
Ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN)
Barium thiocyanate (Ba(SCN)2)
Calcium thiocyanate (Ca(SCN)2)
Magnesium thiocyanate (Mg(SCN)2)
Zinc thiocyanate (Zn(SCN)2)
Copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN)
Iron(III) thiocyanate (Fe(SCN)3)
Lead(II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2)

8. Carbon Sulfides:

Carbon disulfide (CS2)
Ethyl methyl sulfide (C3H8S)
Diethyl sulfide (C4H10S)
Dimethyl sulfide (C2H6S)
Dipropyl sulfide (C6H14S)
Dibutyl sulfide (C8H18S)
Methyl propyl sulfide (C4H10S)
Ethyl propyl sulfide (C5H12S)
Butyl methyl sulfide (C5H12S)
Pentyl methyl sulfide (C6H14S)

9. Carboranes:

Ortho-carborane (C2B10H12)
Meta-carborane (C2B10H12)
Para-carborane (C2B10H12)
1,7-C2B10H12
1,12-C2B10H12
1,5-C2B3H5
1,6-C2B4H6
2,4-C2B5H7
1,2-C2B4H6
1,10-C2B8H12

sealover wrote: Ancient methanogens used to combine hydrogen gas with carbon dioxide to generate methane, water, and a very small amount of energy.

Neither you nor Swan are omniscient. Neither of you know the unobserved, distant past.
09-05-2024 03:54
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.




Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.
09-05-2024 04:27
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
sealover wrote: Inorganic Carbon versus Organic Carbon

What branch of science uses these terms?

Organic chemistry defines organic molecules as carbon-based molecules, or primarily-carbon-containing molecules.

sealover wrote: ORGANIC CARBON is in chemically reduced state.

You're not using the correct terms. There is no such thing as "organic carbon." The correct term for an organic molecule that achieves a reduced state is "reductant." Otherwise, organic molecules are organic molecules and carbon is just carbon.

This doesn't change somehow for non-organic molecules. Reduced substances are similarly "reductants."

The context is chemical reactions.

sealover wrote: INORGANIC CARBON is in a chemically oxidized state.

There are many non-organic molecules that are not chemically oxidized, with CO2 being a notable example.

sealover wrote: Inorganic carbon is a very weak oxidant.

Non-organic molecules that are not chemically oxidized are not oxidants (except in very rare, very specific chemical reactions).

I dug up ten examples (not exhaustive lists) in each of nine categories (not an exhaustive list) of non-organic molecules that are not chemically oxidized:

Carbonates:

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)
Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)
Potassium carbonate (K2CO3)
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3)
Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3)
Zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)
Iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3)
Barium carbonate (BaCO3)
Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)
Strontium carbonate (SrCO3)

2. Bicarbonates:

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3)
Ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3)
Magnesium bicarbonate (Mg(HCO3)2)
Calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2)
Manganese(II) bicarbonate (Mn(HCO3)2)
Zinc bicarbonate (Zn(HCO3)2)
Copper(II) bicarbonate (Cu(HCO3)2)
Iron(II) bicarbonate (Fe(HCO3)2)
Cobalt(II) bicarbonate (Co(HCO3)2)

3. Carbon Oxides:

Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon suboxide (C3O2)
Dicarbon monoxide (C2O)
Ethylene dione (C2O2)
Cyclopentanepentone (C5O5)
Cyclohexanehexone (C6O6)
1,2,3-Butanetrione (C4O3)
Propanedial (C3O2)
Ethanedial (C2O2)

4. Cyanides:

Sodium cyanide (NaCN)
Potassium cyanide (KCN)
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
Calcium cyanide (Ca(CN)2)
Copper(II) cyanide (Cu(CN)2)
Silver cyanide (AgCN)
Zinc cyanide (Zn(CN)2)
Cadmium cyanide (Cd(CN)2)
Mercury(II) cyanide (Hg(CN)2)
Gold(I) cyanide (AuCN)

5. Carbides:

Calcium carbide (CaC2)
Silicon carbide (SiC)
Tungsten carbide (WC)
Boron carbide (B4C)
Aluminum carbide (Al4C3)
Iron carbide (Fe3C)
Magnesium carbide (Mg2C3)
Beryllium carbide (Be2C)
Titanium carbide (TiC)
Zirconium carbide (ZrC)

6. Carbon Halides:

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
Carbon tetrabromide (CBr4)
Carbon tetraiodide (CI4)
Carbon tetrafluoride (CF4)
Chloroform (CHCl3)
Bromoform (CHBr3)
Iodoform (CHI3)
Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)
Dibromomethane (CH2Br2)
Diiodomethane (CH2I2)

7. Thiocyanates:

Potassium thiocyanate (KSCN)
Sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN)
Ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN)
Barium thiocyanate (Ba(SCN)2)
Calcium thiocyanate (Ca(SCN)2)
Magnesium thiocyanate (Mg(SCN)2)
Zinc thiocyanate (Zn(SCN)2)
Copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN)
Iron(III) thiocyanate (Fe(SCN)3)
Lead(II) thiocyanate (Pb(SCN)2)

8. Carbon Sulfides:

Carbon disulfide (CS2)
Ethyl methyl sulfide (C3H8S)
Diethyl sulfide (C4H10S)
Dimethyl sulfide (C2H6S)
Dipropyl sulfide (C6H14S)
Dibutyl sulfide (C8H18S)
Methyl propyl sulfide (C4H10S)
Ethyl propyl sulfide (C5H12S)
Butyl methyl sulfide (C5H12S)
Pentyl methyl sulfide (C6H14S)

9. Carboranes:

Ortho-carborane (C2B10H12)
Meta-carborane (C2B10H12)
Para-carborane (C2B10H12)
1,7-C2B10H12
1,12-C2B10H12
1,5-C2B3H5
1,6-C2B4H6
2,4-C2B5H7
1,2-C2B4H6
1,10-C2B8H12

sealover wrote: Ancient methanogens used to combine hydrogen gas with carbon dioxide to generate methane, water, and a very small amount of energy.

Neither you nor Swan are omniscient. Neither of you know the unobserved, distant past.
09-05-2024 04:36
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
sealover wrote: Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Big deal. You believe that the earth's average equilibrium temperature can be determined to within a usable margin of error, and from there, you believe that the earth's average equilibrium temperature is somehow rising, ... because you don't recognize a non-starter when you see one. It is not humanly possible to provide the quantities of evenly distributed, closely knit, multi-elevational, multi-depth, synchronized measurements required.

So, indulge yourself in another fantasy. It can't hurt. Pretend that "we" can provide the necessary "human intervention" to provide the "environmental chemotherapy" to our sweet, fragile and well-mannered Climate to save her from the evil conservatives who obviously rape her every day.

Live the fantasy. Live the bliss.

sealover wrote: Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Just note that right here you didn't recognize this non-starter either.
09-05-2024 19:22
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.




Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.
10-05-2024 00:27
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
sealover wrote:
Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios,

Climate cannot change. There is nothing to 'mitigate'.
sealover wrote:
atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline.

Carbon is not carbon dioxide. It is not possible to measure the global CO2 concentration.
sealover wrote:
Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow,

Done. Fossils aren't used as fuel. They don't combust.
sealover wrote:
ocean "acidification"

You cannot acidify an alkaline.
sealover wrote:
(i.e. depletion of alkalinity)

It is not possible to measure the pH of the oceans.
sealover wrote:
would continue to get worse for decades to come.

It is not possible to measure the pH of the oceans.
sealover wrote:
Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy

Buzzword fallacies. Meaningless phrase.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
11-05-2024 04:48
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.[/b]



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.
11-05-2024 18:45
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
sealover wrote:
Even under ...

Climate cannot change.
Carbon is not carbon dioxide.
Fossils aren't used as fuel.
You cannot acidify an alkaline.
Carbon is not organic.
Sulfate is not a chemical.
Geoengineering is a meaningless buzzword.
Biogeochemistry is a meaningless buzzword.

Stop spamming.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
13-05-2024 19:48
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.
13-05-2024 21:32
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
Fossils aren't used as fuel.
Climate cannot change.
You cannot acidify an alkaline.
Sulfate is not a chemical.
Carbon is not carbon dioxide.
Carbon is not organic.
You cannot reduce sulfate.

Stop spamming.
18-05-2024 11:33
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.


Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10
18-05-2024 23:58
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
Stop spamming.
RE: "The geologic history of primary productivity"20-05-2024 20:32
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
A paper came out eight months ago that is highly relevant to the paleobiogeochemistry and origin of photosynthesis topics discussed on this thread.


P. Crockford, et al. 2023. The geologic history of net primary productivity. Current Biology. Volume 33, Issue 21, Pages 4741-4750.


What drew my attention was a popular press article about the paper.

It was a story by Eric Ralls, titled "The total amount of life that has ever existed on Earth is mind-blowing." (in earth.com)

I want to quote directly from this article because he correctly uses terms that are NOT "buzzwords".

"..the concept of primary production, a process where organisms convert inorganic carbon, like atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic bicarbonate, into organic molecules.."

It gets into how ANOXYGENIC photosynthesis by bacteria was how photosynthesis got started. Oxygenic photosynthesis, which produces oxygen, came much later.

"The rise of oxygen was a turning point, leading to the evolution of aerobic organisms that could use oxygen for energy."

It is good to see this getting attention outside of the Ivory Tower.

And it is reassuring that authors are allowed to refer to "inorganic carbon", as scientists do, without being censored by trolls.
20-05-2024 20:55
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
sealover wrote: A paper came out eight months ago that is highly relevant to the paleobiogeochemistry

Totally meaningless. What you need is science of paleobiogeochemistry ... but there is no such thing as paleobiogeochemistry.

You screwed that pooch. Nobody has any omniscience of the unobserved past.
21-05-2024 20:32
Im a BM
★★★☆☆
(791)
IBdaMann wrote:
sealover wrote: A paper came out eight months ago that is highly relevant to the paleobiogeochemistry

Totally meaningless. What you need is science of paleobiogeochemistry ... but there is no such thing as paleobiogeochemistry.

You screwed that pooch. Nobody has any omniscience of the unobserved past.



So, you still can't figure out how to use a dictionary.

"Paleobiogeochemistry" is an easy term to look up from multiple sources that are easily accessible.

Such as a dictionary.

Or, you could start a thread called, "Debunking paleobiogeochemistry."

Maybe it was just a religious cult started by a Nazi scientist who escaped war crimes trials and became a high school science teacher in Alabama.

I mean, you did such a good job "Debunking biogeochemistry".

Proved beyond a reasonable doubt that it is just a meaningless "buzzword".

Time for the WORD MASTER to have the final say about what words mean and which words are meaningless.
22-05-2024 06:43
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
Im a BM wrote: So, you still can't figure out how to use a dictionary.

So, you still haven't figured out that a dictionary is not a science textbook.
22-05-2024 20:45
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
A paper came out eight months ago that is highly relevant to the paleobiogeochemistry and origin of photosynthesis topics discussed on this thread.


P. Crockford, et al. 2023. The geologic history of net primary productivity. Current Biology. Volume 33, Issue 21, Pages 4741-4750.


What drew my attention was a popular press article about the paper.

It was a story by Eric Ralls, titled "The total amount of life that has ever existed on Earth is mind-blowing." (in earth.com)

I want to quote directly from this article because he correctly uses terms that are NOT "buzzwords".

"..the concept of primary production, a process where organisms convert inorganic carbon, like atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic bicarbonate, into organic molecules.."

It gets into how ANOXYGENIC photosynthesis by bacteria was how photosynthesis got started. Oxygenic photosynthesis, which produces oxygen, came much later.

"The rise of oxygen was a turning point, leading to the evolution of aerobic organisms that could use oxygen for energy."

It is good to see this getting attention outside of the Ivory Tower.

And it is reassuring that authors are allowed to refer to "inorganic carbon", as scientists do, without being censored by trolls.
22-05-2024 20:46
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.


Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10
23-05-2024 03:11
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
sealover wrote:
...deleted spam...
"..the concept of primary production, a process where organisms convert inorganic carbon, like atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic bicarbonate, into organic molecules.."

Carbon isn't organic. Carbon dioxide isn't organic. There is no such chemical as 'oceanic bicarbonate'.
...deleted spam...
sealover wrote:
And it is reassuring that authors are allowed to refer to "inorganic carbon", as scientists do, ...deleted insults...

Your religion is not science.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
23-05-2024 03:15
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
Im a BM wrote:
IBdaMann wrote:
sealover wrote: A paper came out eight months ago that is highly relevant to the paleobiogeochemistry

Totally meaningless. What you need is science of paleobiogeochemistry ... but there is no such thing as paleobiogeochemistry.

You screwed that pooch. Nobody has any omniscience of the unobserved past.



So, you still can't figure out how to use a dictionary.

You are describing yourself again. You can't blame your problems on anybody else.
Im a BM wrote:
"Paleobiogeochemistry" is an easy term to look up from multiple sources that are easily accessible.

No such word.
Im a BM wrote:
Such as a dictionary.

No dictionary defines any word.
Im a BM wrote:
Or, you could start a thread called, "Debunking paleobiogeochemistry."

No need. There is no need to debunk a buzzword as a buzzword.
[quote]Im a BM wrote:
Maybe it was just a religious cult started by a Nazi scientist who escaped war crimes trials and became a high school science teacher in Alabama.

I mean, you did such a good job "Debunking biogeochemistry".

Proved beyond a reasonable doubt that it is just a meaningless "buzzword".
There is no such word as 'biogeochemistry'.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
23-05-2024 03:24
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.


Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10

SEE 5 OTHER THREADS ABOUT BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE
23-05-2024 04:25
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
sealover wrote:
...deleted spam...
Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios,

Climate cannot change. There is nothing to 'mitigate'.
sealover wrote:
atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline.

Carbon is rinse out of the air by rain.
sealover wrote:
Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow,

Fossils aren't used as fuel. Fossils don't burn.
sealover wrote:
ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

You cannot acidify an alkaline.
sealover wrote:

"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

No such thing as a 'biogeochemist'. Science is not a PhD, title, certification, license, degree, university, college, research or study, or paper.
sealover wrote:
Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10

SEE 5 OTHER THREADS ABOUT BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE

Buzzword fallacies. There is no such thing as 'biogeochemistry' and climate cannot change.
There is no such thing as a global climate.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
23-05-2024 04:26
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.


Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10

SEE 5 OTHER THREADS ABOUT BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE
23-05-2024 04:27
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
Stop spamming.
23-05-2024 05:29
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
sealover wrote: All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

Squeal Over Furniture, I'd like to take the opportunity to remind you that there is something that can get you banned on this site and that is spamming. The two people who were banned were banned specifically for that reason.

I would hate to lose you. Please don't get yourself kicked off the board.
23-05-2024 05:45
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.


Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10

SEE 5 OTHER THREADS ABOUT BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE
23-05-2024 17:17
keepit
★★★★★
(3158)
You're just a hot bluff ibd.
23-05-2024 21:27
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
Stop spamming, Sock.
23-05-2024 22:28
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
All the most relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10, and continuing to page 11.

It includes extensive discussion of paleobiogeochemistry as well as applied biogeochemistry for environmental remediation.



Even under the best-case climate change mitigation scenarios, atmospheric concentrations of carbon will only gradually decline. Even if we cease all fossil fuel combustion tomorrow, ocean "acidification" (i.e. depletion of alkalinity) would continue to get worse for decades to come.

Direct human intervention to perform environmental chemotherapy and provide exogenous alkalinity to the sea by ourselves, dumping gigatons of lime or grinding up gigatons of rocks to transport and distribute to the sea is a non-starter. It is simply not humanly possible to provide the quantities required.

Coastal wetlands are the major source of new alkalinity entering many marine ecosystems, as submarine groundwater discharge.

Under the low oxygen conditions of wetland soil, bacteria use sulfate as oxidant to oxidize organic carbon and acquire energy. Sulfate reduction by bacteria generates inorganic carbon alkalinity, bicarbonate ion, HCO3-, and carbonate ion, CO3(2-), rather than carbon dioxide as the oxidized carbon product.

If anyone is curious, there are three distinctly different geoengineering approaches that could be applied to increase the generation of alkalinity for the sea through oxidation of wetland sediment organic carbon via microbial sulfate reduction.


"sealover" is a PhD biogeochemist who performed extensive research on wetland soil and groundwater of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.


Relevant posts of this thread are compiled, beginning top of page 10

SEE 5 OTHER THREADS ABOUT BIOGEOCHEMISTRY AND GLOBAL CHANGE
24-05-2024 00:48
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21962)
Stop spamming.
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