Remember me
▼ Content

Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.



Page 3 of 3<123
02-05-2022 23:09
James_
★★★★★
(2251)
I think there is a lot left to be learned. For a weight lifter to move so much weight,
how to calculate the bonds of cells to the mass being lifted?



[quote]sealover wrote:
The bonds that hold cell together.

Covalent bonds are the strongest attachments in chemistry.

Ionic bonds are weaker, but still hold things together.

Non polar (hydrophobic) London dispersion forces are weaker still.

But they are flexible. They can easily detach and reattach in a different position.

The most important bonds that hold cells together are the weakest ones.

The lipids in the cell membrane are held together by non polar interactions.

Living cells and the multicellular animals they can become have a lot of moving parts.

Too much rigidity from too many covalent bonds would be maladaptive.

When a sperm and egg unite to form a single cell it has just one (combined) set of genes to work with.

None of the cells that form from that first cell are quite like it.

The more they divide, the more they diverge into distinct types.

They still all have just that original set of genes, but which genes are being activated depends on what kind of cell it has diverged into.

The search for stem cells is to have something to start over with. A cell that is not already committed to activating any particular genes within it.

A brain cell cannot give rise to a heart cell, or visa versa.

A stem cell can give rise to either a brain cell or a heart cell. Or any other kind.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Edited on 02-05-2022 23:18
02-05-2022 23:13
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21955)
sealover wrote:
The bonds that hold cell together.
...deleted Holy Quote...

More cut and paste. You are just posting with no conclusion to try to look smart. It is all too obvious that you aren't.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
02-05-2022 23:34
James_
★★★★★
(2251)
Into the Night wrote:
sealover wrote:
The bonds that hold cell together.
...deleted Holy Quote...

More cut and paste. You are just posting with no conclusion to try to look smart. It is all too obvious that you aren't.



You're posting with a concussion ITN? I am so sorry to hear that. I bet it smarts when you wonder about
and then you think I was diong
and now you want to

I hope you get over your head injury. Did you run into I had a BM and liked it?
I guess in your case you didn't need smelling salts or did you?
Edited on 02-05-2022 23:35
RE: THC versus THCa - What's in it for the PLANT?03-05-2022 00:52
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
THC versus THCa - What's in it for the PLANT?

There is no adaptive value for cannabis to get terns high.

So, what's in it for the PLANT to make THC?

We may have selectively bred them to make even MORE, to get US high.

But why was the plant making it before we ever found them?

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, THCa, is the main form produced in the plant.

THCa is an ortho hydroxy phenol carboxylic acid.

It does not get terns high.

THCa must be decarboxylated to THC to give the desired effect.

Why would the plant benefit from making THCa?

Part of the cannabis "extended" phenotype is to influence conditions in the underlying soil.

The wild version can form monospecific thickets where the competition just can't get in to grow.

Like polyphenols, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid has the ortho hydroxy phenol carboxylic pair of adjacent functional groups.

Like polyphenols, THCa can act as a metal chelating agent, anti oxidant, free radical scavenger, precursor to humic acid polymers via oxidative coupling.

THCa helps the plant build a nice little nest in the soil, favorable to itself, and unfavorable to the competition.

What do you think of THAT, big bro?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

sealover wrote:
We shall leave no tern unstoned.

Full disclosure.

Yes, I WAS there and I DID see the tripping liver flukes wiggle a lot.

I was barely sixteen, visiting my older brother at snodfart.

I got to hang out with him in his lab that weekend. 1975.

Once the flukes got to wiggling enough, he flash froze them with liquid nitrogen, so he could later cut out their frozen brains.

Many years later, he did neuro pharmacology research with birds and THC.

The birds were terns, and they revealed specific neuroreceptors for THC.

I made up a joke for him.

The other scientists were criticizing the work.

He had performed the experiment with no "control" group.

How could they conclude anything without a control for comparison?

Well, it was a matter of principle. One had to be THOROUGH in the search.

We shall leave no tern unstoned.
03-05-2022 01:32
James_
★★★★★
(2251)
While your interest is different, growing marijuana is different than coca plants.
And to harvest them requires a different understanding. With THC, it has 2 extra hydrogen atoms. Energy translates into what?
With the coca plant, high moisture , low atmospheric pressure like Hawai'i. Limited land to make it a viable crop.
And why do people get high like ITN when smoking marijuana? The brain has a receptor that only accepts the THC molecule. After that, that receptor is worthless.
And given time, new receptors will be generated so the body's ability to use a THC product is limited by nature.

sealover wrote:
THC versus THCa - What's in it for the PLANT?

There is no adaptive value for cannabis to get terns high.

So, what's in it for the PLANT to make THC?

We may have selectively bred them to make even MORE, to get US high.

But why was the plant making it before we ever found them?

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, THCa, is the main form produced in the plant.

THCa is an ortho hydroxy phenol carboxylic acid.

It does not get terns high.

THCa must be decarboxylated to THC to give the desired effect.

Why would the plant benefit from making THCa?

Part of the cannabis "extended" phenotype is to influence conditions in the underlying soil.

The wild version can form monospecific thickets where the competition just can't get in to grow.

Like polyphenols, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid has the ortho hydroxy phenol carboxylic pair of adjacent functional groups.

Like polyphenols, THCa can act as a metal chelating agent, anti oxidant, free radical scavenger, precursor to humic acid polymers via oxidative coupling.

THCa helps the plant build a nice little nest in the soil, favorable to itself, and unfavorable to the competition.

What do you think of THAT, big bro?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

sealover wrote:
We shall leave no tern unstoned.

Full disclosure.

Yes, I WAS there and I DID see the tripping liver flukes wiggle a lot.

I was barely sixteen, visiting my older brother at snodfart.

I got to hang out with him in his lab that weekend. 1975.

Once the flukes got to wiggling enough, he flash froze them with liquid nitrogen, so he could later cut out their frozen brains.

Many years later, he did neuro pharmacology research with birds and THC.

The birds were terns, and they revealed specific neuroreceptors for THC.

I made up a joke for him.

The other scientists were criticizing the work.

He had performed the experiment with no "control" group.

How could they conclude anything without a control for comparison?

Well, it was a matter of principle. One had to be THOROUGH in the search.

We shall leave no tern unstoned.

Edited on 03-05-2022 01:44
RE: Or maybe your friends at Extinction Rebellion?03-05-2022 20:46
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
Or maybe your friends at Extinction Rebellion?

Big bro, I apologize if I accidentally offended you by trying to drag you into this.

On the other hand, maybe your friends at Extinction Rebellion would want to join in to discuss global environmental change science, rather than pharmacology.

This website is evolving quickly, away from the no-go zone it used to be.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Into the Night wrote:
sealover wrote:
The bonds that hold cell together.
...deleted Holy Quote...

More cut and paste. You are just posting with no conclusion to try to look smart. It is all too obvious that you aren't.
04-05-2022 00:13
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21955)
James_ wrote:
With the coca plant, high moisture , low atmospheric pressure like Hawai'i. Limited land to make it a viable crop.

Hawaii is at sea level. Plants don't have pressure sensors.
The coca plant is native to South America, but can be grown in any humid well lit and free is any chance of freezing (making it ideal growing conditions in the tropics, especially in clearings).
James_ wrote:
And why do people get high like ITN when smoking marijuana?

I don't smoke marijuana or take any recreational drug of any kind, not even the legal ones.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
Edited on 04-05-2022 00:14
04-05-2022 00:17
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21955)
sealover wrote:
Or maybe your friends at Extinction Rebellion?

Big bro, I apologize if I accidentally offended you by trying to drag you into this.

On the other hand, maybe your friends at Extinction Rebellion would want to join in to discuss global environmental change science, rather than pharmacology.

This website is evolving quickly, away from the no-go zone it used to be.

I have no friends at Extinction Rebellion. There is no such thing as 'global environmental science'. I am not discussing pharmacology.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
RE: Natural selection for loyalty to dominant authority figure.17-05-2022 00:32
Im a BM
★★★☆☆
(791)
Natural selection for loyalty to dominant authority figure.

Humans are social animals.

Like other social animals, there is typically just one dominant authority figure.

It's a rare set of genes that produce the traits required for the niche.

On the other hand, like other social animals, there are several loyal lieutenants.

It doesn't require such exceptional traits to be a loyal follower.

It is a larger niche to survive in. More open positions for those who lack the traits to ever become a dominant authority figure.

Humans increased the size of their packs (herd, pod, flock, murder of crows..)
as we created larger social orders with just one dominant authority figure.

This created a VERY large niche for the weaker ones to ensure their survival by being in good favor with the dominant authority figure, by displaying loyalty.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Into the Night wrote:
Not the meaning of 'fact'. Try again.

/quote]
Not the meaning of 'fact'. Try again.[/quote]
18-05-2022 18:19
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21955)
Im a BM wrote:
Natural selection for loyalty to dominant authority figure.
...

Spam. Incomplete argument.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
21-04-2023 15:19
IBdaMannProfile picture★★★★★
(14537)
Into the Night wrote:Define 'renegade gene'.

A renegade gene is a gene with AI that develops a will of its own, possibly even learning the Bangladeshi language without ever being told to do so.
08-06-2023 02:14
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.

To understand how we can use the technology of applied biogeochemistry to address climate change and ocean "acidification", it is useful to understand a few things about evolutionary biology.

Bacteria once used transformation of carbon dioxide into methane to create an atmosphere in which methane was present at double digit percentage (parts per hundred) concentrations, rather than the 1.7 parts per MILLION that it is today.

Bacteria today can transform methane into carbon dioxide, reducing the global warming potential of the greenhouse gas twenty fold.

The evolution of endosymbiosis, such as the mitochondria that allow an otherwise anaerobic organism to utilize oxygen as oxidant, can be applied as technology for organisms to combine their efforts in symbiosis to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Understanding of evolutionary biology can help us understand how to be better stewards of the Earth.

It can also help us understand ourselves and what we really are.

The endosymbiotic theory of consciousness.

Every human body is a pair of conjoined twins, each twin having its own separate brain.

One twin lives entirely inside of the other. Distinct tissue types.

One twin has striated muscle tissue, controlled by the cerebrum. The skeletal muscles are under conscious control by the twin with the 5 senses to interact with the outside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

The other twin has smooth muscle tissue, controlled by the brain stem. The smooth muscles are under unconscious control by the twin with the 200 senses to interact with the inside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

One twin controls the central nervous system with its cerebral brain. This runs down the middle of the spine.

One twin controls the autonomic nervous system with its brainstem. This runs down two parallel tracks away from the spine, deeper in the body. Use of different neurotransmitters prevents them from accidentally interfering with each other.

But aren't conjoined twins IDENTICAL?

They are genetically identical. Identical genotypes. They are expressed in radically different phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity at the earliest phase of embryonic development led to very different body types as they one grew inside the other. Distinct tissue types extended out and grew around each other.

Tony was a scientific genius who made his first brilliant discovery at age 17.

He was too smart for high school so they had him take classes at local college.

The class was neurobiology.

Tony remembered the time they first forced him to eat liver.

It tasted like POISON!

It was probably the only time they ever had to fight with him to get him to eat something.

That shit tasted so godawful bad, and they weren't going to let him get away without punishment unless he ate more of it.

After many tears and much conflict, only half of the piece of liver remained on the plate. And it tasted horrible the whole time.

The next morning Tony woke up with a CRAVING for liver.

He happily requested that liver please be prepared again.

Parents were still pissed about the night before and thought it was mockery.

Tony REALLY WANTED to eat liver again. He loved it for the rest of his life.

Tony also remembered the time he stole the box of artificially flavored crackers.

It arrived in the mail as a free sample, and he snuck off with it before anyone else knew it was there.

Those crackers were DELICIOUS! SO GOOD! Tony ate the whole box.

The next morning Tony was still feeling a little sick.

Just remembering the taste of those crackers was almost enough to make him vomit. He would never ever ever eat anything that tasted at all like that again.

Using what he just learned about neurobiology, Tony figured out what happened.

The taste buds in his mouth provided information to one of his two brains.

The taste buds in his stomach provided information to the other brain.

Just from that taste in the mouth, liver was foreign and weird and full of something different than he was used to.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY GOOD had come in. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, go find more of it.

Just from the taste buds in his mouth, the crackers were DELICIOUS. They were triggering all the right sensations.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY BAD had come in. Maybe it was just the MSG or one of those other polysyllabic ingredients on the list. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, never eat anything like it again.

Tony went on to find more information. Even the immune system was a pair of dimorphic conjoined twins. Sometimes one would attack the tissues of the other, thinking that it was defending itself.

In part, this thread is where the connection between evolutionary biology and technology to address global environmental change can be discussed.

It can also be a place to have fun with other ideas related to evolutionary biology.

And wait until you learn about Tony's OTHER big discovery, when he was much older.

Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.
08-06-2023 02:15
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Sigmund Freud was a Neurobiologist.

The groundwork for the endosymbiotic theory of consciousness was laid out nearly a century ago by Sigmund Freud.

Before floundering into psychiatry and his theories about "anal" or "phallic" stages of development, "penis envy" and the rest, he was a neurobiologist.

He recognized that our psyche was composed of more than one component and he sought to identify the different parts of the brain that might account for it.

He suggested that the ego and, later in development, the superego, both arose from the cerebrum.

The id wasn't so clear.

Neurobiology hadn't gone far year.

That was long before they did the savage experiments on cats.

They found that with nearly the entire cerebrum removed, electrodes into the brainstem could stimulate the blind, deaf body into complex patterns of RAGE.

And what they did to the poor bulls. At least they didn't cut their brains out.

Radio controlled electrodes into the bull's brainstem could be stimulated to make the thing start wildly attacking what they COULD see and hear.

Freud's id, where our unconsciously controlled EMOTIONS are was in the brainstem. The PLEASURE CENTER too.
08-06-2023 02:17
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
A Dopamine Rush for Good Behavior. Or for BAD Behavior.

The central nervous system has the classic "five senses".

Vision, hearing, smell, taste, and "touch".

That "touch" one accounts for about a dozen more senses.

Hot, cold, ouch, itch, etc.

To do the drunk test you close you eyes and touch your nose.

How do you know the position of your joints in space when you can't see them"

"Touch".

But it is still a very short list of "senses", compared to the autonomic nervous system.

Taste buds throughout the body know the flavor of every chemical the body needs to regulate or otherwise be aware of. That is a LOT is different chemicals.

To make the body work, the two brains have to cooperate.

The brainstem can't see, hear, smell, taste or touch the outside world.

It only knows that something must have happened out there, because the chemistry inside is tasting different now.

It needs to let the cerebrum know, to reward good behavior and be sure not to repeat bad behavior.

One way to inner twin to reward outer twin is with a dopamine rush. Get it to do more of the same again.

But the outer twin can short circuit the process and get the dopamine without the inner twin's help.

More often than not, this rewards BAD behavior.

That cocaine is actually doing HARM to the inner twin.

That dopamine rush is the reward for fratricide and suicide.
08-06-2023 02:18
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Darwinian Evolution - The Basics

Genetic mutations occur randomly, without concern for adaptive need.

There is differential reproductive success among the progeny.

The vast majority of mutations are benign or maladaptive.

They do not enhance reproductive success and are not selected for.

A tiny minority of mutations impart adaptive value that enhances fitness and reproductive success.

These mutations are selected for in natural selection because they make the organism more fit to survive and reproduce.

These well adapted mutants become the majority in the population.

Darwinian Evolution - The Basics
08-06-2023 02:19
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Evolutionary Biology Basics - Principles of Ecology.

Natural selection favors the genotypes that develop into phenotypes with superior fitness. Superior ability to interact with the environment in a manner that enables them to survive and reproduce.

The phenotypes interact with environment.

The environment includes the physical features of climate, geomorphology, presence or absence of standing water, etc.

The environment also includes the other organisms and the products of their biological activities.

The environment includes expressions of organisms' "extended" phenotypes.

The beavers build the dams because their genes tell them too, and it creates an engineered wetland environment that creates a new ecosystem with new niches.

Dam construction is coded into their phenotype. The dam itself, and the environmental engineering alteration of ecosystems it brings about, are the physical expression of the beaver's "extended" phenotype.

We'll get into all the niches, producers, consumers, and ecological interactions that play into evolutionary biology.
08-06-2023 02:20
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Iodine bound to tyrosine from tunicates to humans.

Humans are hominids, primates, mammals, and vertebrates all at the same time.

But "vertebrate" isn't a phyla. It is a sub phyla of chordates.

Tunicates are invertebrate chordates.

Perhaps our closest surviving invertebrate relatives.

Tunicates make a sticky glue material in order to trap tiny pieces of food out of sea water. A key ingredient of that glue is a molecule in which tyrosine is bound to iodine. Extremely rare in nature. But it makes good glue. And there is plenty of iodine in seawater.

The tunicate gland that produces the glue is attached to the pharynx.

We still have that gland in pretty much the same place by our pharynx.

The thyroid gland produces a hormone that contains that very rare tyrosine bound to iodine. We can't grow without iodine.

There could have been plenty of other ways to make the thyroid hormone without needing iodine. Iodine can be very scarce up on the continents, especially in some high mountain regions or places like the Great Lakes.

It only takes the tiniest bit of iodine to satisfy the thyroid.

Note: The enlarged throat goiters of severe iodine deficiency may the the most familiar face of iodine deficiency. What affects many hundreds of millions of more people are the diminished mental development capacity of less severe iodine deficiency.

The government of China concluded that they could raise the IQ of their population by an average of 10 points by supplying iodine supplement on a large scale. And they've been doing it.

So, would "intelligent design" deliberately handicap us with a need for iodine?

How come this unique molecular combination only occurs in a few invertebrate chordates and ALL vertebrates?

Hard to explain without the paradigm of evolutionary biology.

Iodine bound to tyrosine from tunicates to humans.
08-06-2023 02:21
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Bilateral Symmetry - A factor in our consciousness.

"The Psychology of Consciousness" by Robert Ornstein, first published in the 1970s highlighted some of what was being learned about bilateral symmetry as a factor in our consciousness.

The brain is split down the middle, with the right and left half operating in some ways independently.

Understanding the significance of bilateral symmetry can help us understand what we are.

Bilateral symmetry was a game changer in animal evolution.

Before the first mutant that was a kind of flatworm came along, all the animals bodies were based on radial symmetry. There was no plane of symmetry along which they could be divided.

Echinoderms, such as starfish have pseudo radial symmetry.

Echinoderms are far more advanced than their flatworm ancestors.

The echinoderm larval stage has purely bilateral symmetry.

The adult stage has pseudo radial symmetry. There is only one way to divide a starfish down the middle and have the pairs of glands, etc., be equal on both sides. Only one of the five arms is the middle one.

Bilateral symmetry made it possible to have appendages in mirror pairs, which could be articulated and coordinated in ways impossible with radial symmetry.

So how did that first mutant freak flatworm ancestor evolve from a radially symmetrical ancestor?
08-06-2023 02:23
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Beaver's "extended" phenotype includes alkalinity export from watersheds.

When beavers act as ecosystem engineers to construct wetlands, they do more than just make a safe home with an abundant food supply.

Alteration of hydrology by the beaver dam creates low oxygen conditions where sulfate reduction can occur.

Water exported below the dam contains significantly increased alkalinity, compared to the water entering from above.

The beaver's "extended" phenotype helps to provide the sea with alkalinity.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

[quote]sealover wrote:
Evolutionary Biology Basics - Principles of Ecology.

Natural selection favors the genotypes that develop into phenotypes with superior fitness. Superior ability to interact with the environment in a manner that enables them to survive and reproduce.

The phenotypes interact with environment.

The environment includes the physical features of climate, geomorphology, presence or absence of standing water, etc.

The environment also includes the other organisms and the products of their biological activities.

The environment includes expressions of organisms' "extended" phenotypes.

The beavers build the dams because their genes tell them too, and it creates an engineered wetland environment that creates a new ecosystem with new niches.

Dam construction is coded into their phenotype. The dam itself, and the environmental engineering alteration of ecosystems it brings about, are the physical expression of the beaver's "extended" phenotype.
08-06-2023 02:24
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
"Lay off the LSD" - Which is a 5HT (serotonin) antagonist.

Insights into the nature of human consciousness can be gained through study of neuro pharmacology.

Nerve cells communicate with each other by sending neurotransmitters across a synapse to the other. Messages can be sent in only one direction at a synapse between any two nerve cells.

It is widely accepted that LSD has the pharmacological capacity to alter consciousness. It is also an opportunity to preview a bit of the neuro pharmacology to be included in what will be a long running thread.

LSD is a 5 hydroxy triptamine (5HT), also known as serotonin, antagonist.

How might that account for the manner in which it alters consciousness?

Start by knowing what serotonin (5HT) does as a neurotransmitter.

A neurotransmitter can do one of two things after it crosses the synapse and attaches to the binding site of the target nerve cell.

Some neurotransmitters are excitatory. They tell the other nerve to get more active and send more signals.

Other neurotransmitters are inhibitory. They tell the other nerve to calm down and take the signals down a notch.

Serotonin is inhibitory. Serotonin is used to quell the action within the network.

As soon as the signal gets sent, the nerve cell that put out the 5HT sucks back up excess serotonin still left out in the synapse.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant pharmaceuticals that diminish the reuptake of serotonin from the synapses.

LSD is a different kind of pharmaceutical.

LSD is a serotonin antagonist.

LDD is a perfect fit for the serotonin binding site on the receiving end of a synapse.

Foreign chemicals that are capable of fitting perfectly into the receptor site on the other side of a synapse are either agonists or antagonist.

An agonist actually stimulates the receptor site, telling the other nerve to either get excited or calm down, depending on the neurotransmitter.

If LSD were a serotonin AGONIST, it would be continuously telling the next nerve to calm down.

As a serotonin ANTAGONIST, LSD prevents the other nerve from ever getting the message to calm down.

Our bodies don't have an enzyme to get the LSD off the synaptic binding site, as we do for serotonin, so LSD stays there for hours and hours.

Preventing the receiving nerve from getting the message to calm down.

FOR SIXTEEN FREAKING HOURS, HOLY SHIT...

So, lay of the LSD, people!
08-06-2023 02:25
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Wiggle, wiggle, little fluke. How I wonder what you took.

Liver flukes are interesting little parasites.

Uniquely endowed with the ability to operate a complex nervous system under conditions of anaerobic metabolism.

A complex enough nervous system to prove that LSD is a serotonin antagonist.

A classic retort on this website would be"

"How do you know. Were you there?"

Actually, I WAS there.

Wiggle, wiggle, little fluke. How I wonder what you took.

Those guys wiggle a whole lot more when they be trippin' on acid.

I saw it with my own lying eyes!
08-06-2023 02:26
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
"Origin of Species", NOT Origin of Life.

Charles Darwin once filled a book with meaningless gibber babble buzzwords that cannot be discussed until I'm satisfied with your unambiguous definition for them.

That was an inside joke.

The famous book title does not claim to address the origin of life.

One idea is that the very first DNA based life of this kind started RIGHT HERE on earth, without outside intervention, divine or otherwise.

Many clay mineral surfaces, such as (oxy)hydroxides of iron, aluminum, or manganese, can bind phosphate at regular repeating intervals.

Phosphate is a perfect fit for the anion exchange sites on the clay mineral surface.

The distance between anion exchange sites on the mineral surface is a perfect for the distance between phosphate groups on nucleic acids.

So the idea is that with the phosphates all lined up at the perfect spacing on a clay mineral surface, the other nucleic acid components could have attached to it as ligands, then lined up at perfect spacing to form a nucleic acid.

There was no oxygen in the air or water, and almost no chemical oxidants present.

Organic compound components of nucleic acids, proteins, etc., formed by spontaneous processes would have a long residence time in solution.

Nothing to eat or rot them biologically. Nothing to oxidize them chemically.

They could have accumulated to high concentration in the primordial soup.

And with a clay mineral surface to line up the phosphorus at the right spacing, and plenty of time for the other nucleic acid components to bind to them in a linear structure...

It's not impossible for life to have started right here on Earth.

4000 million years ago.

It's not impossible for those same processes to have occurred on another distant planet, creating DNA based life.

Maybe 8000 million years ago.

And then 4000 million years ago they seeded life on Earth.

And maybe now its our turn to seed life on other planets.

Anyway, my favorite theory is that life began in the clay or on the clay surface.

There is another famous book, not by Darwin, that DOES explicitly address the origin of LIFE rather than the origin of species.

Something about life coming out of the clay.

"Origin of Species", NOT Origin of Life.
08-06-2023 02:28
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Random Genetic Mutations Sometimes Driven by DNA Itself.

Genetic mutations occur randomly, without concern for adaptive need.

Life learned early on how to make more random mutations occur when it could be beneficial.

Bacterial conjugation, during which they each exchange a small fraction of their genes is just one example.

Bacteria won't do this unless their population is under some kind of environmental stress.

This would be a good time to have more mutants available so that at least one of them might be adapted to the more stressful condition.

But they can't pick and choose and predict which gene exchange is going to create the new founding father, along with many more maladapted freaks who die.

There are many many examples of how organisms tweak the mutation rate to enhance the chance of creating a successful mutant when one is needed.

Or even just carry so many copies of the gene (polyploidy) to provide more opportunities for mutations, plus some buffering with extra clean copies still available when a new mutation turns out to be funky.

This will require multiple posts.

It IS random. But life has ways of hedging its bets.

Random Genetic Mutations Sometimes Driven by DNA Itself.
08-06-2023 02:29
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
And this gave rise to VIRUSES.

So, bacteria conjugate in times of stress to increase the chances for random mutation to create a better adapted mutant.

But this created a niche for renegade genes to become independent operators.

Some of those little pieces of genes they exchanged had interests of their own.

They would instruct the next bacteria just to make a whole bunch more of THEM
08-06-2023 02:30
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction - Costs and Benefits.

Many organisms on Earth are capable of either sexual or asexual reproduction.

Many have the option to simply bud off a clone. Lots of them if they choose.

Later in life that same organism may combine its genes with another of its species.

Costs and benefits.

Cloning is safe sex. No need to expose oneself to predators in the search for a partner. No need to move anywhere or send gametes out to search for a partner.

But cloning just gives you more of the same. No genetic diversity.

The high risk practice of sexual reproduction has a potentially very high price.

But it results in genetic diversity.

The more advanced lines of organism reproduce sexually and ONLY sexually.

That way they get more of those random mutations that keep up the diversity.
08-06-2023 02:30
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
We shall leave no tern unstoned.

Full disclosure.

Yes, I WAS there and I DID see the tripping liver flukes wiggle a lot.

I was barely sixteen, visiting my older brother at snodfart.

I got to hang out with him in his lab that weekend. 1975.

Once the flukes got to wiggling enough, he flash froze them with liquid nitrogen, so he could later cut out their frozen brains.

Many years later, he did neuro pharmacology research with birds and THC.

The birds were terns, and they revealed specific neuroreceptors for THC.

I made up a joke for him.

The other scientists were criticizing the work.

He had performed the experiment with no "control" group.

How could they conclude anything without a control for comparison?

Well, it was a matter of principle. One had to be THOROUGH in the search.

We shall leave no tern unstoned.
08-06-2023 02:32
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Just ONE real scientist to be invited for May Day celebration.

This website is still a much too hostile environment to expose anyone I care about to.

But there is ONE real scientist I'm going to invite later today.

This guy is not a biogeochemist or climate scientist or atmospheric physicist or any of that environmental stuff.

This guy's discovery actually won a NOBEL PRIZE.

I'm proud as hell for that, vicariously.

Using rabbit livers, he identified the protein regulator for cGMP.

Might not hear from him right away, but he could make a hell of a fine contribution to a thread about the neuro pharmacological basis of consciousness.

Of course, the previous inhabitants of this site will make it clear that this, too, is just another lie.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


[quote]sealover wrote:
We shall leave no tern unstoned.

Full disclosure.

Yes, I WAS there and I DID see the tripping liver flukes wiggle a lot.

I was barely sixteen, visiting my older brother at snodfart.

I got to hang out with him in his lab that weekend. 1975.

Once the flukes got to wiggling enough, he flash froze them with liquid nitrogen, so he could later cut out their frozen brains.

Many years later, he did neuro pharmacology research with birds and THC.

The birds were terns, and they revealed specific neuroreceptors for THC.

I made up a joke for him.

The other scientists were criticizing the work.

He had performed the experiment with no "control" group.

How could they conclude anything without a control for comparison?

Well, it was a matter of principle. One had to be THOROUGH in the search.

We shall leave no tern unstoned.
08-06-2023 02:33
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Connective tissue as a single integrated organ.

Medical science discovered "connective tissue" a long time ago.

Many theories about what it was or what good it did a body to have it.

Just a few years ago, it was discovered that the connective tissue is a single massive organ connected to each and every part of the body.

Noting that the interstitial space can control the pressure of gas inside it, one theory is that it could be a shock absorber to protect vital organs.

Noting that the interstitial space can transport material, such as tattoo pigments, another theory is that it removes waste products and foreign materials from the body.

In the context of how a human body is a symbiosis of two dimorphic clones, here is another possible explanation for how we ended up with this massive connective tissue organ.

Two independent creatures joined in symbiosis. Each one brought its own respiratory system to bring in oxygen and evacuate carbon dioxide.

One of them had a lunglike or gill like structure that used hemoglobin as the carrier for oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The other one had a tracheid like structure in which a network of tiny tubes allowed oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide to leave.

But, unlike the arthropod tracheid structure, this creature had a one-way flow system. The holes where oxygen rich water came in were not the same holes where carbon dioxide rich water exited.

When the two creatures joined together in symbiosis, it had twice as many respiratory systems as it needed.

One became more specialized for delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide, using hemoglobin as carrier in a closed circulatory system.

The other became more specialized for removing waste products and foreign materials.

Volatile organic compounds, common metabolic waste products, do not dissolve well in blood. They are more easily removed through a tracheid like tube network.

The connective tissue organ uses positive and negative pressure to move gas and liquid. It pushes only lightly with the positive pressure. It pulls hard, like really hard, with the tension of negative pressure.

Talk about your migrane headaches and charlie horses.

The intake and outlet points for liquid and gas to the interstitia are throughout the skin, paranasal sinuses, and a few parts of the guts.

This is just a preview.

Connective tissue as a single interconnected organ.
08-06-2023 02:36
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
The bonds that hold cell together.

Covalent bonds are the strongest attachments in chemistry.

Ionic bonds are weaker, but still hold things together.

Hydrogen bonds are weaker still, but they hold many things together.

Non polar (hydrophobic) London dispersion forces are the weakest of all.

But they are flexible. They can easily detach and reattach in a different position.

The most important bonds that hold cells together are the weakest ones.

The lipids in the cell membrane are held together by non polar interactions.

Living cells and the multicellular animals they can become have a lot of moving parts.

Too much rigidity from too many covalent bonds would be maladaptive.

When a sperm and egg unite to form a single cell it has just one (combined) set of genes to work with.

None of the cells that form from that first cell are quite like it.

The more they divide, the more they diverge into distinct types.

They still all have just that original set of genes, but which genes are being activated depends on what kind of cell it has diverged into.

The search for stem cells is to have something to start over with. A cell that is not already committed to activating any particular genes within it.

A brain cell cannot give rise to a heart cell, or visa versa.

A stem cell can give rise to either a brain cell or a heart cell. Or any other kind.
08-06-2023 02:38
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
THC versus THCa - What's in it for the PLANT?

There is no adaptive value for cannabis to get terns high.

So, what's in it for the PLANT to make THC?

We may have selectively bred them to make even MORE, to get US high.

But why was the plant making it before we ever found them?

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, THCa, is the main form produced in the plant.

THCa is an ortho hydroxy phenol carboxylic acid.

It does not get terns high.

THCa must be decarboxylated to THC to give the desired effect.

Why would the plant benefit from making THCa?

Part of the cannabis "extended" phenotype is to influence conditions in the underlying soil.

The wild version can form monospecific thickets where the competition just can't get in to grow.

Like polyphenols, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid has the ortho hydroxy phenol carboxylic pair of adjacent functional groups.

Like polyphenols, THCa can act as a metal chelating agent, anti oxidant, free radical scavenger, precursor to humic acid polymers via oxidative coupling.

THCa helps the plant build a nice little nest in the soil, favorable to itself, and unfavorable to the competition.

What do you think of THAT, big bro?
08-06-2023 02:38
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]Im a BM wrote:
Natural selection for loyalty to dominant authority figure.

Humans are social animals.

Like other social animals, there is typically just one dominant authority figure.

It's a rare set of genes that produce the traits required for the niche.

On the other hand, like other social animals, there are several loyal lieutenants.

It doesn't require such exceptional traits to be a loyal follower.

It is a larger niche to survive in. More open positions for those who lack the traits to ever become a dominant authority figure.

Humans increased the size of their packs (herd, pod, flock, murder of crows..)
as we created larger social orders with just one dominant authority figure.

This created a VERY large niche for the weaker ones to ensure their survival by being in good favor with the dominant authority figure, by displaying loyalty.
08-06-2023 02:39
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
[quote]sealover wrote:
Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.

To understand how we can use the technology of applied biogeochemistry to address climate change and ocean "acidification", it is useful to understand a few things about evolutionary biology.

Bacteria once used transformation of carbon dioxide into methane to create an atmosphere in which methane was present at double digit percentage (parts per hundred) concentrations, rather than the 1.7 parts per MILLION that it is today.

Bacteria today can transform methane into carbon dioxide, reducing the global warming potential of the greenhouse gas twenty fold.

The evolution of endosymbiosis, such as the mitochondria that allow an otherwise anaerobic organism to utilize oxygen as oxidant, can be applied as technology for organisms to combine their efforts in symbiosis to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Understanding of evolutionary biology can help us understand how to be better stewards of the Earth.

It can also help us understand ourselves and what we really are.

The endosymbiotic theory of consciousness.

Every human body is a pair of conjoined twins, each twin having its own separate brain.

One twin lives entirely inside of the other. Distinct tissue types.

One twin has striated muscle tissue, controlled by the cerebrum. The skeletal muscles are under conscious control by the twin with the 5 senses to interact with the outside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

The other twin has smooth muscle tissue, controlled by the brain stem. The smooth muscles are under unconscious control by the twin with the 200 senses to interact with the inside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

One twin controls the central nervous system with its cerebral brain. This runs down the middle of the spine.

One twin controls the autonomic nervous system with its brainstem. This runs down two parallel tracks away from the spine, deeper in the body. Use of different neurotransmitters prevents them from accidentally interfering with each other.

But aren't conjoined twins IDENTICAL?

They are genetically identical. Identical genotypes. They are expressed in radically different phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity at the earliest phase of embryonic development led to very different body types as they one grew inside the other. Distinct tissue types extended out and grew around each other.

Tony was a scientific genius who made his first brilliant discovery at age 17.

He was too smart for high school so they had him take classes at local college.

The class was neurobiology.

Tony remembered the time they first forced him to eat liver.

It tasted like POISON!

It was probably the only time they ever had to fight with him to get him to eat something.

That shit tasted so godawful bad, and they weren't going to let him get away without punishment unless he ate more of it.

After many tears and much conflict, only half of the piece of liver remained on the plate. And it tasted horrible the whole time.

The next morning Tony woke up with a CRAVING for liver.

He happily requested that liver please be prepared again.

Parents were still pissed about the night before and thought it was mockery.

Tony REALLY WANTED to eat liver again. He loved it for the rest of his life.

Tony also remembered the time he stole the box of artificially flavored crackers.

It arrived in the mail as a free sample, and he snuck off with it before anyone else knew it was there.

Those crackers were DELICIOUS! SO GOOD! Tony ate the whole box.

The next morning Tony was still feeling a little sick.

Just remembering the taste of those crackers was almost enough to make him vomit. He would never ever ever eat anything that tasted at all like that again.

Using what he just learned about neurobiology, Tony figured out what happened.

The taste buds in his mouth provided information to one of his two brains.

The taste buds in his stomach provided information to the other brain.

Just from that taste in the mouth, liver was foreign and weird and full of something different than he was used to.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY GOOD had come in. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, go find more of it.

Just from the taste buds in his mouth, the crackers were DELICIOUS. They were triggering all the right sensations.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY BAD had come in. Maybe it was just the MSG or one of those other polysyllabic ingredients on the list. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, never eat anything like it again.

Tony went on to find more information. Even the immune system was a pair of dimorphic conjoined twins. Sometimes one would attack the tissues of the other, thinking that it was defending itself.

In part, this thread is where the connection between evolutionary biology and technology to address global environmental change can be discussed.

It can also be a place to have fun with other ideas related to evolutionary biology.

And wait until you learn about Tony's OTHER big discovery, when he was much older.

Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.
RE: science is awesome01-05-2024 18:24
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.

To understand how we can use the technology of applied biogeochemistry to address climate change and ocean "acidification", it is useful to understand a few things about evolutionary biology.

Bacteria once used transformation of carbon dioxide into methane to create an atmosphere in which methane was present at double digit percentage (parts per hundred) concentrations, rather than the 1.7 parts per MILLION that it is today.

Bacteria today can transform methane into carbon dioxide, reducing the global warming potential of the greenhouse gas twenty fold.

The evolution of endosymbiosis, such as the mitochondria that allow an otherwise anaerobic organism to utilize oxygen as oxidant, can be applied as technology for organisms to combine their efforts in symbiosis to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Understanding of evolutionary biology can help us understand how to be better stewards of the Earth.

It can also help us understand ourselves and what we really are.

The endosymbiotic theory of consciousness.

Every human body is a pair of conjoined twins, each twin having its own separate brain.

One twin lives entirely inside of the other. Distinct tissue types.

One twin has striated muscle tissue, controlled by the cerebrum. The skeletal muscles are under conscious control by the twin with the 5 senses to interact with the outside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

The other twin has smooth muscle tissue, controlled by the brain stem. The smooth muscles are under unconscious control by the twin with the 200 senses to interact with the inside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

One twin controls the central nervous system with its cerebral brain. This runs down the middle of the spine.

One twin controls the autonomic nervous system with its brainstem. This runs down two parallel tracks away from the spine, deeper in the body. Use of different neurotransmitters prevents them from accidentally interfering with each other.

But aren't conjoined twins IDENTICAL?

They are genetically identical. Identical genotypes. They are expressed in radically different phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity at the earliest phase of embryonic development led to very different body types as they one grew inside the other. Distinct tissue types extended out and grew around each other.

Tony was a scientific genius who made his first brilliant discovery at age 17.

He was too smart for high school so they had him take classes at local college.

The class was neurobiology.

Tony remembered the time they first forced him to eat liver.

It tasted like POISON!

It was probably the only time they ever had to fight with him to get him to eat something.

That shit tasted so godawful bad, and they weren't going to let him get away without punishment unless he ate more of it.

After many tears and much conflict, only half of the piece of liver remained on the plate. And it tasted horrible the whole time.

The next morning Tony woke up with a CRAVING for liver.

He happily requested that liver please be prepared again.

Parents were still pissed about the night before and thought it was mockery.

Tony REALLY WANTED to eat liver again. He loved it for the rest of his life.

Tony also remembered the time he stole the box of artificially flavored crackers.

It arrived in the mail as a free sample, and he snuck off with it before anyone else knew it was there.

Those crackers were DELICIOUS! SO GOOD! Tony ate the whole box.

The next morning Tony was still feeling a little sick.

Just remembering the taste of those crackers was almost enough to make him vomit. He would never ever ever eat anything that tasted at all like that again.

Using what he just learned about neurobiology, Tony figured out what happened.

The taste buds in his mouth provided information to one of his two brains.

The taste buds in his stomach provided information to the other brain.

Just from that taste in the mouth, liver was foreign and weird and full of something different than he was used to.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY GOOD had come in. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, go find more of it.

Just from the taste buds in his mouth, the crackers were DELICIOUS. They were triggering all the right sensations.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY BAD had come in. Maybe it was just the MSG or one of those other polysyllabic ingredients on the list. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, never eat anything like it again.

Tony went on to find more information. Even the immune system was a pair of dimorphic conjoined twins. Sometimes one would attack the tissues of the other, thinking that it was defending itself.

In part, this thread is where the connection between evolutionary biology and technology to address global environmental change can be discussed.

It can also be a place to have fun with other ideas related to evolutionary biology.

And wait until you learn about Tony's OTHER big discovery, when he was much older.

Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.
02-05-2024 00:35
Into the NightProfile picture★★★★★
(21955)
sealover wrote:
Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.

No such thing, other than as a religious artifact.
sealover wrote:
To understand how we can use the technology of applied biogeochemistry

No such thing, other than as a religious artifact.
sealover wrote:
to address climate change

Climate cannot change.
sealover wrote:
and ocean "acidification",

You cannot acidify an alkaline.
sealover wrote:
it is useful to understand a few things about evolutionary biology.

No such thing.
sealover wrote:
Bacteria once used transformation of carbon dioxide into methane to create an atmosphere in which methane was present at double digit percentage (parts per hundred) concentrations, rather than the 1.7 parts per MILLION that it is today.

Omniscience fallacy. You don't know what happened.
sealover wrote:
Bacteria today can transform methane into carbon dioxide,

Heck my furnace does that!
sealover wrote:
reducing the global warming potential of the greenhouse gas twenty fold.

No such thing, except as a religious artifact. No gas or vapor has the capability to warm the Earth. You are ignoring the 1st law of thermodynamics again. You cannot create energy out of nothing.
sealover wrote:
The evolution of endosymbiosis, such as the mitochondria that allow an otherwise anaerobic organism to utilize oxygen as oxidant, can be applied as technology for organisms to combine their efforts in symbiosis to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

You are ignoring the 1st law of thermodynamics again.
sealover wrote:
Understanding of evolutionary biology can help us understand how to be better stewards of the Earth.

No such thing.
sealover wrote:
It can also help us understand ourselves and what we really are.

The endosymbiotic theory of consciousness.

You are describing a religion.
sealover wrote:
Every human body is a pair of conjoined twins, each twin having its own separate brain.

You are hallucinating again.
sealover wrote:
One twin has striated muscle tissue, controlled by the cerebrum. The skeletal muscles are under conscious control by the twin with the 5 senses to interact with the outside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

The other twin has smooth muscle tissue, controlled by the brain stem.

The brain stem is part of the brain. The cerebrum is part of the brain. Both heart and diaphragm are striated muscle tissue (not smooth muscle).
sealover wrote:
The smooth muscles are under unconscious control by the twin with the 200 senses to interact with the inside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

There is no 'other brain'.
sealover wrote:
They are genetically identical. Identical genotypes. They are expressed in radically different phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity at the earliest phase of embryonic development led to very different body types as they one grew inside the other. Distinct tissue types extended out and grew around each other.

The brain stem is part of the brain. The cerebrum is part of the brain. Obviously, you don't anatomy either, or any of the chemical processes in the brain.
sealover wrote:
...deleted fiction about 'Tony'...

Spamming gets you nowhere, Sock.


The Parrot Killer

Debunked in my sig. - tmiddles

Google keeps track of paranoid talk and i'm not on their list. I've been evaluated and certified. - keepit

nuclear powered ships do not require nuclear fuel. - Swan

While it is true that fossils do not burn it is also true that fossil fuels burn very well - Swan
10-05-2024 03:51
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
"Lay off the LSD" - Which is a 5HT (serotonin) antagonist.

Insights into the nature of human consciousness can be gained through study of neuro pharmacology.

Nerve cells communicate with each other by sending neurotransmitters across a synapse to the other. Messages can be sent in only one direction at a synapse between any two nerve cells.

It is widely accepted that LSD has the pharmacological capacity to alter consciousness. It is also an opportunity to preview a bit of the neuro pharmacology to be included in what will be a long running thread.

LSD is a 5 hydroxy triptamine (5HT), also known as serotonin, antagonist.

How might that account for the manner in which it alters consciousness?

Start by knowing what serotonin (5HT) does as a neurotransmitter.

A neurotransmitter can do one of two things after it crosses the synapse and attaches to the binding site of the target nerve cell.

Some neurotransmitters are excitatory. They tell the other nerve to get more active and send more signals.

Other neurotransmitters are inhibitory. They tell the other nerve to calm down and take the signals down a notch.

Serotonin is inhibitory. Serotonin is used to quell the action within the network.

As soon as the signal gets sent, the nerve cell that put out the 5HT sucks back up excess serotonin still left out in the synapse.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant pharmaceuticals that diminish the reuptake of serotonin from the synapses.

LSD is a different kind of pharmaceutical.

LSD is a serotonin antagonist.

LDD is a perfect fit for the serotonin binding site on the receiving end of a synapse.

Foreign chemicals that are capable of fitting perfectly into the receptor site on the other side of a synapse are either agonists or antagonist.

An agonist actually stimulates the receptor site, telling the other nerve to either get excited or calm down, depending on the neurotransmitter.

If LSD were a serotonin AGONIST, it would be continuously telling the next nerve to calm down.

As a serotonin ANTAGONIST, LSD prevents the other nerve from ever getting the message to calm down.

Our bodies don't have an enzyme to get the LSD off the synaptic binding site, as we do for serotonin, so LSD stays there for hours and hours.

Preventing the receiving nerve from getting the message to calm down.

FOR SIXTEEN FREAKING HOURS, HOLY SHIT...

So, lay of the LSD, people!


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Swan wrote:
sealover wrote:
Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.

To understand how we can use the technology of applied biogeochemistry to address climate change and ocean "acidification", it is useful to understand a few things about evolutionary biology.

Bacteria once used transformation of carbon dioxide into methane to create an atmosphere in which methane was present at double digit percentage (parts per hundred) concentrations, rather than the 1.7 parts per MILLION that it is today.

Bacteria today can transform methane into carbon dioxide, reducing the global warming potential of the greenhouse gas twenty fold.

The evolution of endosymbiosis, such as the mitochondria that allow an otherwise anaerobic organism to utilize oxygen as oxidant, can be applied as technology for organisms to combine their efforts in symbiosis to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

Understanding of evolutionary biology can help us understand how to be better stewards of the Earth.

It can also help us understand ourselves and what we really are.

The endosymbiotic theory of consciousness.

Every human body is a pair of conjoined twins, each twin having its own separate brain.

One twin lives entirely inside of the other. Distinct tissue types.

One twin has striated muscle tissue, controlled by the cerebrum. The skeletal muscles are under conscious control by the twin with the 5 senses to interact with the outside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

The other twin has smooth muscle tissue, controlled by the brain stem. The smooth muscles are under unconscious control by the twin with the 200 senses to interact with the inside world. These muscles use a different neurotransmitter than the other brain to be sure the signals never get crossed.

One twin controls the central nervous system with its cerebral brain. This runs down the middle of the spine.

One twin controls the autonomic nervous system with its brainstem. This runs down two parallel tracks away from the spine, deeper in the body. Use of different neurotransmitters prevents them from accidentally interfering with each other.

But aren't conjoined twins IDENTICAL?

They are genetically identical. Identical genotypes. They are expressed in radically different phenotypes. Phenotypic plasticity at the earliest phase of embryonic development led to very different body types as they one grew inside the other. Distinct tissue types extended out and grew around each other.

Tony was a scientific genius who made his first brilliant discovery at age 17.

He was too smart for high school so they had him take classes at local college.

The class was neurobiology.

Tony remembered the time they first forced him to eat liver.

It tasted like POISON!

It was probably the only time they ever had to fight with him to get him to eat something.

That shit tasted so godawful bad, and they weren't going to let him get away without punishment unless he ate more of it.

After many tears and much conflict, only half of the piece of liver remained on the plate. And it tasted horrible the whole time.

The next morning Tony woke up with a CRAVING for liver.

He happily requested that liver please be prepared again.

Parents were still pissed about the night before and thought it was mockery.

Tony REALLY WANTED to eat liver again. He loved it for the rest of his life.

Tony also remembered the time he stole the box of artificially flavored crackers.

It arrived in the mail as a free sample, and he snuck off with it before anyone else knew it was there.

Those crackers were DELICIOUS! SO GOOD! Tony ate the whole box.

The next morning Tony was still feeling a little sick.

Just remembering the taste of those crackers was almost enough to make him vomit. He would never ever ever eat anything that tasted at all like that again.

Using what he just learned about neurobiology, Tony figured out what happened.

The taste buds in his mouth provided information to one of his two brains.

The taste buds in his stomach provided information to the other brain.

Just from that taste in the mouth, liver was foreign and weird and full of something different than he was used to.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY GOOD had come in. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, go find more of it.

Just from the taste buds in his mouth, the crackers were DELICIOUS. They were triggering all the right sensations.

It didn't take long for the taste buds in his stomach to tell his brainstem that something REALLY BAD had come in. Maybe it was just the MSG or one of those other polysyllabic ingredients on the list. Tell the cerebrum that whatever this stuff is, never eat anything like it again.

Tony went on to find more information. Even the immune system was a pair of dimorphic conjoined twins. Sometimes one would attack the tissues of the other, thinking that it was defending itself.

In part, this thread is where the connection between evolutionary biology and technology to address global environmental change can be discussed.

It can also be a place to have fun with other ideas related to evolutionary biology.

And wait until you learn about Tony's OTHER big discovery, when he was much older.

Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.

Evolutionary Biology

Lay off the LSD
[/quote]
10-05-2024 03:58
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
Liver flukes, as seen in the "Terraforming: Is it Possible" thread

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wiggle, wiggle, little fluke.
How I wonder what you took.

Liver flukes are interesting little parasites.

Almost uniquely endowed with the ability to operate a complex nervous system under conditions of anaerobic metabolism.

A complex enough nervous system to prove that LSD is a serotonin antagonist.

A classic retort on this website would be"

"How do you know. Were you there?"

Actually, I WAS there.

Wiggle, wiggle, little fluke. How I wonder what you took.

Those guys wiggle a whole lot more when they be trippin' on acid.

I saw it with my own lying eyes!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

sealover wrote:
"Lay off the LSD" - Which is a 5HT (serotonin) antagonist.

Insights into the nature of human consciousness can be gained through study of neuro pharmacology.

Nerve cells communicate with each other by sending neurotransmitters across a synapse to the other. Messages can be sent in only one direction at a synapse between any two nerve cells.

It is widely accepted that LSD has the pharmacological capacity to alter consciousness. It is also an opportunity to preview a bit of the neuro pharmacology to be included in what will be a long running thread.

LSD is a 5 hydroxy triptamine (5HT), also known as serotonin, antagonist.

How might that account for the manner in which it alters consciousness?

Start by knowing what serotonin (5HT) does as a neurotransmitter.

A neurotransmitter can do one of two things after it crosses the synapse and attaches to the binding site of the target nerve cell.

Some neurotransmitters are excitatory. They tell the other nerve to get more active and send more signals.

Other neurotransmitters are inhibitory. They tell the other nerve to calm down and take the signals down a notch.

Serotonin is inhibitory. Serotonin is used to quell the action within the network.

As soon as the signal gets sent, the nerve cell that put out the 5HT sucks back up excess serotonin still left out in the synapse.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant pharmaceuticals that diminish the reuptake of serotonin from the synapses.

LSD is a different kind of pharmaceutical.

LSD is a serotonin antagonist.

LDD is a perfect fit for the serotonin binding site on the receiving end of a synapse.

Foreign chemicals that are capable of fitting perfectly into the receptor site on the other side of a synapse are either agonists or antagonist.

An agonist actually stimulates the receptor site, telling the other nerve to either get excited or calm down, depending on the neurotransmitter.

If LSD were a serotonin AGONIST, it would be continuously telling the next nerve to calm down.

As a serotonin ANTAGONIST, LSD prevents the other nerve from ever getting the message to calm down.

Our bodies don't have an enzyme to get the LSD off the synaptic binding site, as we do for serotonin, so LSD stays there for hours and hours.

Preventing the receiving nerve from getting the message to calm down.

FOR SIXTEEN FREAKING HOURS, HOLY SHIT...

So, lay of the LSD, people!
10-05-2024 04:05
sealover
★★★★☆
(1601)
LIVER FLUKES as seen on the "Terraforming: Is it Possible" thread.

See post above this for more liver fluke action.

Wiggle, wiggle little fluke
How I wonder what you took

-----------------------------------------------
We shall leave no tern unstoned.

Full disclosure.

Yes, I WAS there and I DID see the tripping liver flukes wiggle a lot.

I was barely sixteen, visiting my older brother at Snodfart.

I got to hang out with him in his lab that weekend. 1975.

Once the flukes got to wiggling enough, he flash froze them with liquid nitrogen, so he could later cut out their frozen brains.

Many years later, he did neuro pharmacology research with birds and THC.

The birds were terns, and they revealed specific neuroreceptors for THC.

I made up a joke for him.

The other scientists were criticizing the work.

He had performed the experiment with no "control" group.

How could they conclude anything without a control for comparison?

Well, it was a matter of principle. One had to be THOROUGH in the search.

We shall leave no tern unstoned.[/quote]
Page 3 of 3<123





Join the debate Evolutionary Biology and the Endosymbiotic Theory of Consciousness.:

Remember me

Related content
ThreadsRepliesLast post
I have a theory12316-06-2023 19:16
What is the cause of climate change based on the greenhouse gas theory?8204-02-2023 20:51
There is no scientific theory or evidence that suggest CO2 traps heat better than O2 or N253330-01-2023 07:22
Relativity theory31703-11-2022 19:38
Grand Unified Theory3212-05-2022 19:54
Articles
Theory
▲ Top of page
Public Poll
Who is leading the renewable energy race?

US

EU

China

Japan

India

Brazil

Other

Don't know


Thanks for supporting Climate-Debate.com.
Copyright © 2009-2020 Climate-Debate.com | About | Contact